初中英语语法汇总(现在完成时)

 来源:互联网    要点:英语语法  
编辑点评: 初中英语语法汇总第五弹来袭,现在完成时。依旧是常用时态之一,中考的重点难点哦。没有学好的亲们,一定要追随小编我的脚步一起来复习吧。

初中英语语法汇总——现在完成时

一.表达概念:

1.表示到说话人说话时已经完成的动作,却对现在仍有影响或结果。

例句: He has lost his book.他丢了他的书。

2.表示事情开始与过去,却一直持续到现在还在进行的事情。

例句: He has taught in our school for 30 years. 他在我们学校教书已有30年了。

3.表示从过去某个时间直到现在的这个时间范围内不断重复发生的动作或情况,并且这个不断重复的动作有可能继续下去,也有可能到现在就结束。

例句: My father has always gone to work by bike. 我父亲一向骑车上班。

4.同一般现在时可以表示将来一样,现在完成时也可以在时间状语从句里表示将来。

例句: I’ll wait until he has written his letter. 我愿等到他把信写完。 

二、句型构成

主语+have/has+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed) e.g done

①肯定句中:主语+have/has+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)+宾语.

②否定句中:主语+haven't/hasn't+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)+宾语.

③一般疑问句中:Have/Has+主语+动词的过去分词(p.p)(V-ed)+宾语.

④特殊疑问句中:特殊疑问词或词组+一般疑问句(have/has+主语+过去分词(V-ed)+其他)

三、时间状语

常与现在完成时连用的时间状语:ever,never,already,yet,just,before,recently,still,lately,since+时间点,for+时间段,etc.

四、注意点

1.现在完成时不能单独与准确时间连用,(如表示过去的时间状语),如:yesterday(morning、afternoon),last(morning、afternoon)等,除非与for、since连用。

2.现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用,如:already(肯定),yet(否定或疑问),just,before,recently,still,lately,never等。   

eg:He has already obtained a scholarship.   

eg:I haven't seen much of him recently (lately).   

eg:We have seen that film before.   

eg:Have they found the missing child yet?

3. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用,如:often,sometimes,ever,never,twice,on several occasion等。

eg:Have you ever been to Beijing   

eg:I have never heard Bunny say anything against her.   

eg:I have used this pen only three times. It is still good.   

eg:George has met that gentleman on several occasions.

4. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用,如now,up to these few days/weeks/months/years,this morning/week/month/year,just,today,up to present,so far等。

eg:Peter has written six papers so far.   

eg:Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom.   

eg:There has been too much rain in San Francisco this year.   

eg:The friendly relations and cooperation between our two countries have been enhanced in the past few years.   

eg:Up to the present everything has been successful.

5. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作 

eg:We have had four texts this semester.

6.现在完成时的"完成用法" 现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已结束,但该动作对现在产生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系。

例如:He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了。(动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的情况--灯现在不亮了。)

现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过去时间状语(如:already,yet,before,recently等)、频度时间状语(如:never,ever,once等)、包括现在时刻在内的时间状语(如:this morning / month /year...,today等)连用。

例如:Have you found your pen yet?你已找到你的钢笔了吗?

7.现在完成时的"未完成用法"现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去。  

例如:He has lived here since 1978.自从1978年以来,他一直住在这儿。(动作起始于1978年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去。)   

例如:I have been in the army for more than 5 years.我在部队已经呆了五年多了。(动作开始于5年前,一直延续至今,有可能还要继续下去。)   

此种用法的句中常需一个表示一段时间的状语(由since或for引导),或表示与现在时刻相连的时间状语(如:up to now,so far)等。  

例如:I have heard nothing from him up to now.到目前为止我没有他的任何消息。

注意:(1)现在完成时的未完成用法只适用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词,即瞬间完成或延续时间很短的动词。如:come,go,arrive,leave,join,become,die等。

8.一段时间+has passed+since从句

9. 现在完成时常和短语 "up to now /till now","so far" (意思是从过去某一确定的时间一直延续到现在)连用。  

eg:Up to/till now he's read many story books. 至今他已读过好多故事书。  

eg:I've been to New York three times so far. 至今我已到纽约去过三次。  

has gone (to),has been (to),has been (in) 的区别  

has gone to:去了没回  

has been to :去过  

has been in:呆了很久

10.不能与when连用

11.不可以与一般过去时的定义混淆

五、延续性动词和非延续性动词的替换

begin(start)→be on    

die →be dead  

come back→be back    

leave →be away (from)      

fall ill(sick, asleep)→be ill(sick, asleep)    

get up→be up

go out →be out    

finish →be over      

put on →wear 或be on open →be open      

join →be in或 be a member of…      

close →be closed        

go to school→be a student      

borrow →keep      

buy/get →have      

catch(a cold)→ have(a cold)    

get to know →know begin to

study→study        

come to work→work      

move to → live in        

finish/end → be over    

come to → be in      

sit down → be seated    

marry → be married    

dress → be dressed

相关推荐:

不规则动词变化

最新2018英语语法信息由沪江中学学科网提供。

最新文章

请输入错误的描述和修改建议,建议采纳后可获得50沪元。

错误的描述:

修改的建议: