新概念英语第二册语法讲解:定语从句

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编辑点评: 生活缺少点缀总会显得平淡无奇,句子缺少定语同样就丧失了语言的魅力。同学们现在学习的定语,就是为了将来能够更加优美流畅的表达自己哦,还等什么呢,go!go!go!

 

知识要点:

一、定语从句的概念

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。

二、定语从句的关系词

引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词包括where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。

三、定语从句的分类

根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去,非限制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。

四、关系代词的用法

1.that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:
Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle. 玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)
The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue. 我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)

2.which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:
The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket. 位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)
The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)

3.who, whom用于指人,who用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom, 也可省略。例如:
The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(作主语)
Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语)

注意:

(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。例如:
This is the house in which we lived last year. 这是我们去年居住的房子。
Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel. 请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。

(2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:
This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。

(3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:
The city that she lives in is very far away. 她居住的城市非常远。

(4)关系词只能用that的情况:

a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。

b. 被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which。例如:
Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

c. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which。例如:
This is the same bike that I lost. 这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which。例如:
I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room. 我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。

e. 以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:
Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?

f. 主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:
There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。

(5)关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:

a. 先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that。例如:
What's that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?

b. 关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that。例如:
This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。

c. 引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that。例如:
Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

五、关系副词的用法

(1)when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。例如:
This was the time when he arrived. 这是他到达的时间。

(2)where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。例如:
This is place where he works. 这是他工作的地点。

(3)why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用。例如:
Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. 没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。

六、which 和 as

在定语从句的非限制性定语中,which 和as 是容易混淆的。在很多情况下两者兼可互换,但在下列情况中不可互换:

(1)通常as 可以放在整句的句首,而which 只能在逗号之后,as 本身含有“正如”,as 在定语从句中既可是主语也可做宾语。
As appear from her paper, she has read widely in Romantic literature.
She is remarkable, as I have told you .

(2)which 在做非限制性定语从句关联词时可以无明确先行词,指前句整个的意思,如:She has warried again, which surprises us.

七、all that 和 what

在定语从句中,许多人往往分不清all that 和what,what 实际上只引导名词性从句,它相当于all that 两个字,例如:
All that I know is that he has made up his mind to heave the country for a new place.
= What I know is that he has...

【专项训练】

1.Football ______ is a very interesting game , is played all over the world.
A.that B.which C.it D.who

2.Is there anything else ______ you require?
A.which B.that C.who D.what

3.The last place ______ we visited was the Great Wall.
A.which B.that C.where D.it

4.He talked happily about the men and books ______ interested him greatly in the school.
A.which B.who C.it D.that

5.The realway tunnel, through ______ the train goes, will be completed soon.
A.which B.that C.it D.whom

6.His uncle works in a factory ______ bicycles are made.
A.that B.which C.where D.there

7.There is no dictionary ______ you can find everything.
A.that B.which C.where D.in that

8.Next month, ______ you’ll spend in your hometown is coming.
A.which B.that C.when D.where

9.Next month, ______ you’ll be in your hometown is coming.
A.which B.that C.when D.where

10.I often thought of my childhood, ______ I lived on a farm.
A.which B.where C.when D.who

(后设答案,大家不要偷看哦~(*^__^*) 嘻嘻……)

KEYS

1 B 2 B 3 B 4 D 5 A 6 C 7 C 8 A 9 C 10 C

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