新概念英语第二册语法讲解:倒装句

所属专题:新概念英语第二册语法讲解  来源:互联网    要点:新概念英语第二册  
编辑点评: 平时同学们看美剧,跟外教老师交流时,会发现英语和汉语在句子的逻辑表达上有很大的区别,那么今天小编就带着大家一起探访神秘的倒装句啦!学好倒装,远离chinglish!

 

知识要点:

英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语”。如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前,这种语序称为“倒装”。

一、倒装的类型

1.完全倒装:整个谓语移至主语之前。
Out rushed the students to welcome the foreign friends.

2.部分倒装:只把系动词,情态动词,助动词或表语放在主语之前。
Seldom does he go to school late.

二、倒装结构的基本用法

1、由于语法结构的需要而使用的倒装

1) 疑问句中,用完全或部分倒装,但以疑问词或疑问词修饰的名词作主语的疑问句要用正常语序
Where did he go last Monday?
Are you listening to the radio?

2) “there be”结构中,There are three wells in our village.
There stands a big paper making factory by the river.

3) 在以here, there, now, then, in, away, up down等副词开头的句子中,使用完全倒装结构。但如果主语是代词则用正常语序。
There goes the bell.
Now comes your turn to play
Down she went.

4) 在以neither nor 或no more开头的句子中,表示“……也不这样”, neither和nor意思相同,可以替换使用;no more表示动作的程度并不比前面提到的稍强,意为“也不……”。
I can’t swim, nor (neither) can she .
He hasn’t been to the countryside, neither does he want to go there.
He did not turn up. No more did his wife.

5) 用在as(尽管)引导的让步状语从句中,从属连句as用于特殊语序,含义与though, although相同,但“as”这种结构可表示非常强烈的对照,必须用倒装(表语提前)。
Proud as the nobles are, he is afraid to see me .
Young as he is, he knows a lot .

2、为了加强语气而使用的倒装。(使句子更加流畅,更加生动)

1) 含有否定意义的副词或连词放在句首时,常用否定词有:never, not, hardly, scarcely, seldom, little, not until, not only…but also, no sooner …than, hardly (scarcely)…when等。一般主句用部分倒装结构。
Never before have we seen such a sight.
Little did I think that he could be back alive.
Not until New Year’s Day shall I give you a gift.
Not only was everything that he had taken away from him, but also his German citizenship.

2) 副词only放在句首时,only 起强调作用,其句型为“only +状语+部分倒装”。如置于句首的only修饰主语,则不用倒装结构。
Only then did he realize his mistakes.
Only in this way can you learn maths well.
Only Mother can understand me.

3) 虚拟语气条件从句中,把从句中if省略将were,had或should放在主语的前面。
Were they here, they would help us.
Had I been informed earlier. I could have done something.
Should you fail, take more pain and try again.

4) 直接引语的全部或一部分放在句首时,主句主语和谓语次序颠倒,用完全倒装。但如果主句主语为代词时或谓语部分比主语长,一般不用倒装。
“He is a clever boy.” said the teacher.
“Go, Dick, go!” cried Tom, “Go home and get help.”
“What do you think of the film?” he asked.
“I’m leaving for Hongkong next month.” Mary told me yesterday.

5) 表示祝愿的句子中,谓语动词或谓语的一部分放在主语的前面。
May you succeed!
Long live the Communist Party of China.

6) 副词so在句首,表示前面所说的情况也适合于另一个人或另一事物的肯定句中。
He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I.
They will learn chemistry next term, so will I.
I can drive a car, so can my younger brother.
如果后面的句子只是单纯重复前句的意思,不表示也适用于另一人或事,则不用倒装结构。
- Tom won the first prize for the English competition. -So he did.
- It was cold yesterday. - So it was.

7) 在频度状语often, always, many a time等开头的句子中。
Often did we warn them not to do so.
Many a time has she helped me with my English.

8) 在方式状语thus开头的句子中及程度状语so放句首。
Thus ended his life.
So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him.

9) 介词短语作状语,放在句首。
In the middle of the room stood a little girl.
In the distance was a horse.

10) 在强调表语的句子中,表语提前,不仅为了强调,而且为了使句子结构达到平衡协调,或使上下文紧密衔接。
Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great achievements.
Such is life.
Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island.

【专项训练】

1、______ that we all went out, lying in the sun.
A.The weather so fine was B.So fine was the weather C.So the weather was fine D.So was fine weather

2、Under his arm ______ a pair of shoes which he had bought from the shop a few days before.
A.is B.are C.was D.were

3、______ who had arrested him three times for carrying drugs.
A.Before George stood the policeman B.Before George the policeman stood C.Before the policeman stood George D.Before George did the policeman

4、Then ______ we had been looking forward to .
A.came the hour B.the hour came C.comes the hour D.the hour is coming

5、Only when he started to explain ______ the reason for this.
A.she realized B.did she realize C.she had realized D.had she realized

6、______ succeed in doing anything.
A.Only by working hard we can B.By only working hard we can C.Only by working hard can we D.Only we can by working hard

7、Not for a moment ______ the truth of your story.
A.he has doubted B.he doubts C.did he doubt D.he did doubt

8、Nowhere else in the world ______ cheaper tailoring than in Hong Kong.
A.a tourist can find B.can a tourist find C.a tourist will find D.a tourist has found

9、Hardly ______ when the bus suddenly pulled away.
A.they had got to the bus-stop B.they got to the bus-stop C.did they get to the bus-stop D.had they got to the bus -stop

10、Mary doesn’t speak French, and ______ does Joan.
A.not B.neither C.either D.so

(后设答案,大家不要偷看哦~(*^__^*) 嘻嘻……)

KEYS

1、B 2、C 3、A 4、A 5、B 6、C 7、C 8、B 9、D 10、B 

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