新概念英语第二册语法讲解:名词性从句(3)宾语从句

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编辑点评: 小编上学时最头疼的就是名词性从句啦,不过相信同学们看了下面的讲解,再配合着多多练习,一定可以搞定哒!今天我们就来学习名词性从句中的,宾语从句~

 

(三)宾语从句:在复合句中充当宾语。

1. that引导宾语从句时无含义,不充当成分,常省略。

★that不引导介词的宾语从句,至于except that, in that, save that, but that等是复合从属连词。
I know (that) you have met him.
Let's suppose that one day this happens to you.

★在及物动词和宾语从句之间常有间接宾语(指人)。例如:
I told him (that) he was wrong.

★在少数动词如:think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, calculate, fancy, reckon, be supposed , seem, appear, feel as if, look as if, look like等后面的从句中的否定词经常转移到主句谓语动词上,这叫否定前置/否定转移。(hope“希望”, guess“认为”后的宾语从句否定不前置。I hope not.“我希望不是那样的”,是I hope so.的否定式。I don't hope so.是对hope的否定:“我不希望如此”。)如:
I don't think it will be very cold today.
I don't think you are right.
I don't believe he has finished his work.

注意:

①非必须否定转移。若需要强调从句的否定时就不作转移。

②不可把所有可否定转移动词的否定句都理解为否定宾语从句,要根据句意或语境而定。
I don't think diplomacy is a field for private enterprise.
We didn't think we'd be this late.

③当think用在疑问句中,或主句中的谓语动词与状语连用,或主句中的谓语动词被do强调时,不能否定转移。
Why do you think we can't change your note?
I do believe Tom never tells a lie.
They still didn't believe that the food would come.
I can't believe that they are married.

④否定转移多用在主句动词为一般现在时的情况。
主句动词为一般过去时、过去完成时、过去进行时、现在完成时、现在完成进行时,或主句动词与情态动词连用,就不能否定转移。此时若主句动词为否定,应考虑是否是对主句动词的否定。
I had thought that he would not come.
我已经想到了他不能来了。

⑤当宾语从句中有no, never, hardly, not at all, not a bit, not...enough, can't help doing等时不能否定转移。
I think I can't help laughing if I see it.
I believe he never tells a lie.

▲许多带宾语补足语的句子要用it作形式宾语,而把宾语从句置于句尾。
We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone.
We thought it a pity that she should have missed the chance.

2. whether, if引导宾语从句:表示“是否”可互换,口语中常用if。
He asked if she would come.

注意下列情况下whether不可用if换:

1)引导主语从句置于句首时。

2)whether后没有单词间隔而直接跟or not时。
I don't know whether or not he will come.

3) whether从句作介词宾语时。
They are talking about whether he will win the game.
Everything depends on whether you agree with us.

4)whether后接不定式时。
I don't know whether to attend the meeting.

5)动词discuss, decide的宾语从句时。

3. 连接代词what, who, whose等引导的宾语从句。
Tell me what you want.
Do you know who will come at the meeting?

注意:who, whom按照传统语法,从句中who所取代的名词如果是宾语应用宾格whom,但在口语中常用who,如:
Do you know whom (who) he will invite?

①whose, which, what三个词都带有形容词性质。whose表示所有,意为“谁的”;which意为“哪一个”,what意为“什么”。如:
Whose book it is not important.
Please tell me which school you want to go.
He didn't know what time it was.

②一般说来,which指的是在一个具体的、较明确的、有限的、较小范围;而what则指较广的或不明确的范围。如:which food,说话人一般指眼前的或明确范围的几种food;what food则指许多food,而且说话人心中没有数。
I don't know which / what food you want.
如果范围较大或者没有什么范围,最好用what food。

4. 连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。
I don't know when the meeting will be held.
Please tell me where I can find Tom.
He explained to me why he was absent from the meeting.
Can you tell me how I can get to the post office?

5. 可用whatever, whoever, whomever, whenever, wherever等引导宾语从句。
Please write down whatever he is saying.
I don't know whoever will come.
I'll do whatever you ask me to.

6. 表示爱憎情感的动词,如:enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, don't mind, resent, appreciate(感激)等以及某些介词结尾的短语动词如:count on, depend on, rely on, see to, look forward to, be fond of, feel like, see to等后,即使没有宾补也要先接形式宾语it,再接宾语从句。
I like it when she smiles at me.
I love it when you sing.
I hate it if I am spoken to loudly in public.
★除了but, besides, except, in, save, beyond六个介词后跟that引导的宾语从句外,其他介词都不能。in that是“因为”的意思,其余五个与that搭配都是“除了……”。

专项训练:

1、Do you know how much hot water ______?

A.Mum is needed B.does Mum need C.Mum needs D.did Mum need

2、Can you tell me ______?

A.where he is B.where is he C.he is where D.what is he

3、I didn't know how ______ to London?

A.would they go B.are they going C.they would go D.they are going

4、I want to know how long ______.

A.has he been back B.has he come back C.he has been back D.he has come back

5、Do you know ______?

A.what the news are B.what is the news C.what the news is D.what are the news

6、He said he would help me with my maths if he ______ free.

A.was B.will be C.would be D.is

7、He will write to you as soon as he ______ to Shanghai.

A.gets B.is getting C.will get D.shall get

8、Father ______ music when he ______ young

A.liked…was B.liked…is C.likes…was D.likes…is

9、I liked sports ______ I was young.

A.so much as B.so much that C.very much when D.very much because

10、______ mother got home,I was tidying my room.

A.After B.When C.As soon as D.Before

(后设答案,大家不要偷看(⊙o⊙)哦,(*^__^*) 嘻嘻……)

KEYS

1、C 2、A 3、C 4、C 5、C 6、A 7、A 8、A 9、C 10、B

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