新初三必看英语语法之主谓一致

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:初三英语  
编辑点评: 暑假已经过去,新初三的孩子们也进入紧张的备考阶段。中考中英语占得比重很大,要想考好英语,英语语法一定得牢固掌握。小编特意为大家准备了新初三必看的英语语法,初三的孩子们一定要抽出时间看看背背。

谓语受主语支配,须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这叫做主谓一致。主谓

一致一般遵循三条原则:语法一致原则,意义一致原则和就近一致原则。

1. 语法一致的原则

(1)以单数名词或代词,动词不定式短语作主语时,谓语动词要用单数;主语为复数时,谓语用复数,例如:

He goes to school early every morning.

The children are playing outside.

To work hard is necessary for a student.

(2)由and或both……and连接的并列成分作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:

Both he and I are right.

Mr Black and Mrs Black have a son called Tom.

但并列主语如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数。例如:

His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.

The poet and writer has come.

(3)由and连接的并列单数主语之前如果分别由each, every修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

Each man and each woman is asked to help.

(4)主语是单数时,尽管后面跟有 but ,except, besides, with 等介词短语,谓语动词仍用单数。例如:

The teacher with his students is going to visit the museum.

Nobody but two boys was late for class.

Bread and butter is a daily food in the west.

(5) 一些只有复数形式的名词,如people, police, cattle, clothes等作主语时,谓语动词要用复数。例如:

A lot of people are dancing outside.

The police are looking for lost boy.

(6)由each, some, any, no, every 构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词都用单数。例如:

Is everybody ready?

Somebody is using the phone.

(7)有两部分构成的物体的名词,如glasses, shoes, trousers, chopsticks, scissors 等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:

Where are my shoes? I can’t find them.

Your trousers are dirty. You’d better change them.

如果这类名词前用了a pair of等,则往往用作单数,谓语动词的单复数形式往往取决于pair的单复数形式。例如:

Here are some new pairs of shoes.

My new pair of socks is on the bed.

2. 意义一致的原则

(1)表时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数。例如:

Twenty years is not a long time.

Ten dollars is too dear.

(2)有些集合名词,如family, team等作主语时,如作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数;如指其中每个成员,则用复数。例如:

My family is big one.

My family are watching TV.

(3)不定代词由all, most, more, some, any, none作主语时,也要依这些代词表示的意义来决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果代词代表复数可数名词,谓语动词用复数;如果代词代表单数可数名词或不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。例如:

All of the work has been finished.

All of the people have gone.

(4)疑问代词作主语时,其谓语动词也有两种情况:主语表示复数意义,谓语动词用复数;主语表示单数意义,则谓语动词用单数。例如:

Who is your brother?

Who are League members?

(5)“分数或百分数+of+名词”构成的词组作主语时,其谓语动词要以of后面的名词而定。名词是复数,谓语动词用复数:名词是单数,谓语动词用单数。例如:

It is said that 35 per cent of the doctors are women.

Three –fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.

(6)half, the rest等表示不定数量的名词作主语时,如果所指为复数意义,动词用复数;如果所指为单数意义,动词用单数。例如:

I have read a large part of the book, the rest is more difficult.

Only ten students attended the class because all the rest were off sick.

(7)由what 引导地主于从句作主语时,通常谓语动词用单数形式。但如果所指内容为复数意义时,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:

What she said is correct.

What she left me are a few old books.

(8)凡是以“定冠词+形容词(或分词)”作主语,往往根据意义一致的原则决定谓语动词的单复数形式。如果这种主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数;如果指的是一个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

The sick have been cured and the lost have been found.

The dead is a famous person.

3. 邻近一致的原则

(1)由连词or, either……or, neither……nor, not only…but also,等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,则谓语动词按就近一致原则,与最靠近它的主语一致。例如:

Either you or I am right.

Neither the children nor the teacher knows anything about it.

(2)在“There be” 句型中,谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。

There are two apples and one egg in it.

(3)as well as 和名词连用时,谓语动词和第一个名词相一致。

He as well as I is responsible for it.

不但是我,他对这件事也有责任。

(4)以here开头的句子,其谓语动词和靠近的主语一致。

Here is a letter and some books for you.

【实例解析】

1. (2004年天津市中考试题)

How time flies! Ten years ________ passed.

A. have B. has C. is D. are

答案:B。该题考查的是主谓一致。Ten years通常被看作是一个时间整体,谓语动词用单数形式。

2. (2004年南通市中考试题)

Not only his parents but also his brother ________ to the Summer Palace. They haven’t been back.

A. have been B. have gone C. has been D. has gone

答案:D。该题考查的是主谓一致。如果由not only…but also连接两个并列主语,其谓语动词同相邻的主语保持一致,谓语动词应用单数形式。又因为他们还都没有回来,所以用has gone而不用has been。

3. (2004年吉林市中考试题)

Neither my father ________ going to see the patient.

A. nor I am B. nor I are

C. or me are D. or me is

答案:A。该题考查的是主谓一致。Neither…nor是一组连词,可连接连个并列主语,其谓语动词应同靠近的主语I保持一致, 因此应选A。

22.禁止和警告 Prohibition and warnings

a.You can’t/mustn’t…

If you…, you’ll…

b.Take care !

Be careful !

Look out !

23.表示感情 Expressing certain emotions

a.喜悦 Pleasure, joy

I’m glad/pleased/happy to…

That’s nice.

That’s wonderful/great.

b.焦虑 Anxiety

What’s wrong?

What’s the matter (with you)?

I’m/He’s/She’s worried.

Oh, what shall I/we do?

c.惊奇 Surprise

Really?

Oh dear?

Is that so?

24.就餐 Taking meals

a.What would you like to have?

Would you like something to eat/drink?

b.I’d like…

Would you like some more…?

Help yourself to some…

c.Thank you. I’ve had enough/Just a little, please.

25.约会 Making appointments

a.Are you free this afternoon/evening?

How about tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening?

Shall we meet at 4: 30 at…?

b.Yes, that’s all right.

Yes, I’ll be free then.

c.No, I won’t be free then. But I’ll be free…

a. All right. See you then.

26.传递信息 Passing on a message

a.Will you please give this note/message to…?

b.asked me to give you this note.

c.Thanks for the message.

27.看病 Seeing the doctor

a.There’s something wrong with…

I’ve got a cough.

I feel terrible(bad).

I don’t feel well.

I’ve got a pain here.

This place hurts.

b.Take this medicine three times a day.

Drink plenty of water and have a good rest.

It’s nothing serious.

You’ll be right/well soon.

28.求救 Calling for help

a.Help!

b.What’s the matter?

29.语言困难 Language difficulties

Pardon.

Please say that again/more slowly.

What do you mean by…?

I’m sorry I can’t follow you.

I’m sorry I know only a little English.

30.常见的标志和说明 Some common signs and instructions

BUSINESS HOURS FRAGILE

OFFICE HOURS THIS SIDE UP

OPEN MENU

CLOSED NO SMOKING

PULL NO PARKING

PUSH NO PHOTOS

ON DANGER!

OFF PLAY

ENTRANCE STOP

EXIT PAUSE

INSTRUCTIONS

同学们在中考复习时,首先应熟记教材第一至三册中出现的常用交际用语和习惯表达法。重点掌握问路、打电话、购物、看病、就餐和谈论天气等六种情景中的表达方法。明确学习交际用语的目的是为了培养与讲英语人士进行口头交际的能力。学习日常交际用语,要了解西方的风土人情,必须记住一些典型的日常交际用语;要明确谈话的场合和对象,因为在许多交际场合,怎么问和怎么答都有一些约定俗成的语言;要注意中西文化传统和背景的不同,使用得体的语言。因此,同学们必须熟悉这些套话,熟练地掌握它们。这样才能结合自己所处的环境,知道在什么时候、什么地方、用什么方式、对什么人使用恰当的语言表达出自己的意思,给予正确的应答,还要能自如应付各种形式的测试,如单项选择、对号入座、补全对话及排列顺序等。

做这类题目的思路和方法归纳起来有以下九点:

1. 要根据不同的情景,使用不同的表达法。

2. 要正确判断出对话的情景。

3. 问话或答语不能离题。

4. 用筛选法选择正确对话。

5. 从语意进行判断。

6. 根据习惯用法进行选择。

7. 答语要符合西方人的文化、风俗和习惯。

8. 要使用文明礼貌的语言。

9. 要遵照口语交际特点,不要死套语法规则。

【中考范例】

1. (2004年北京市中考试题)

---Would you like to go out for a walk with us?

---_________, but I must finish my homework first.

A. Of course not B. That’s all right

C. I’d love to D. Yes, I do

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是如何婉拒别人的邀请。对方邀请出去散步,但因为要做家庭作业而婉言拒绝。符合这一情景的答语只有C。

2. (2004年江西省中考试题)

---I haven’t seen Jack for three days. Is he ill?

---________. His mother told me that he was in hospital.

A. I am afraid so B. I hope not

C. I don’t expect D. I am afraid not

【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是如何回答别人的询问。对方询问某人是否有病,由于答话人已经知道某人有病(从后一句答语可知),只能给出肯定回答。

3. (2004年济宁市中考试题)

---Thank you for your delicious dinner.

---__________.

A. Don’t say that B. It’s nothing

C. I don’t think so D. I’m glad you enjoyed it

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是如何回答别人的感谢和赞扬。说英语国家的人在回答别人的感谢和赞扬时与中国人的习惯不同, 他们不是自我谦虚,而是表示高兴。

4. (2004年济宁市中考试题)

Turn the box over, please. Can’t you see the words “________”?

A. DANGER B. MENU C. THIS SIDE UP D. FRAGILE

【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是常用英语标志和说明。只有看到箱子上有 “THIS SIDE UP”这样的标志,才能发现箱子放倒了,才会让对方把箱子反过来。

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