新初三必看英语语法之定语从句

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:初三英语  
编辑点评: 暑假已经过去,新初三的孩子们也进入紧张的备考阶段。中考中英语占得比重很大,要想考好英语,英语语法一定得牢固掌握。小编特意为大家准备了新初三必看的英语语法,初三的孩子们一定要抽出时间看看背背。

考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到定语从句。

【名师精讲】

一. 定语从句的功用和结构

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如:

This is the present that he gave me for my birthday.

Do you know everybody who came to the party?

I still remember the night when I first came to the village?

This is the place where Chairman Mao once lived.

二. 关系代词和关系副词的功用

关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如:

I don’t like people who talk much but do little.

The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.

2. 作宾语:

She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.

The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.

3. 作定语

关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:

What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?

The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.

4. 作状语

I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.

This is the house where I was born.

三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

The person who broke the window must pay for it.

The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

2. whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:

Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?

Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.

3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:

The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.

I know the boy whose father is a professor.

4. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

5. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

This is the house where we lived last year.

The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:

That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room

which we had lived in for ten years.

五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

(1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:

All that he said is true.

(2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.

(3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

(4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

(5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

2. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:

(1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:

The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

(2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.

【中考范例】

1. (2004年哈尔滨中考试题)

---Does the teacher know everybody _______ planted the trees?

---Yes, he does.

A. which B. whose C. where D. who

【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是引导定语从句的关系代词的选择。因为先行词是人,而关系代词又在定语从句中作主语,所以只有who合适。

>>点击查看2015年中考英语专题,阅读更多相关文章!

最新2018初三英语信息由沪江中学学科网提供。

最新文章

请输入错误的描述和修改建议,建议采纳后可获得50沪元。

错误的描述:

修改的建议: