新初三必看英语语法之代词

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:初三英语  
编辑点评: 暑假已经过去,新初三的孩子们也进入紧张的备考阶段。中考中英语占得比重很大,要想考好英语,英语语法一定得牢固掌握。小编特意为大家准备了新初三必看的英语语法,初三的孩子们一定要抽出时间看看背背。

代词是代替名词、形容词和数词的词。按其意义、特征及其在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、反身代词、相互代词、疑问代词、不定代词和关系代词等。

一. 人称代词

1.人称代词的人称、数和格,如下表所示。

2.人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语,宾格作宾语。如:

I like table tennis. (作主语)

Do you know him?(作宾语)

3.人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如:

---Whos is knocking at the door?

---It’s me.

4.人称代词在than之后与其他人或事物进行比较时,用主格和宾格都可以。如:

He is older than me.

He is older than I am.

二. 物主代词

1.表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。物主代词分形容词性物主代词和名词性

物主代词,如下表所示。

2. 形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词,可在句中作定语。例如:

Our teacher is coming to see us.

This is her pencil-box.

3. 名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句中可用作主语、宾语和表语。

Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主语)

--- Is this English-book yours? (作表语)

--- No. Mine is in my bag.

I've already finished my homework. Have you finished yours? (作宾语)

三. 指示代词

指示代词包括:this,that,these,those。

1. this和these一般用来指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,that和those

则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,例如:

This is a pen and that is a pencil.

We are busy these days.

In those days the workers had a hard time.

2. 有时that和those指前面讲到过的事物,this 和these则是指下面将要讲

到的事物,例如:

I had a cold. That's why I didn't come.

What I want to say is this ; pronunciation is very important in learning English.

3. 有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用that或those代替,例如:

Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai.

4. this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则代表对方。例如:

Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

四. 反身代词

英语中用来表示"我自己","你自己","他自己","我们自己","你们自己"

等意义的代词称为反身代词,也有人称之为自身代名词,其形式如表所示。

反身代词可以在句中作宾语,表语,同位语。

1. 作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者,主语和宾语指同一个人

或一些人。

He called himself a writer.

Would you please express yourself in English?

2. 作表语。

It doesn't matter.I'll be myself soon.

The girl in the news is myself.

3. 作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本人。

I myself washed the clothes.(=I washed the clothes myself.)(作主语同位语)

You should ask the teacher himself.(作宾语同位语)

五. 不定代词

不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,在句中可作主语、表

语、宾语和定语。现将几个常用的不定代词举例说明如下:

1. some与any的区别

1)some多用于肯定句,表示“一些,几个”作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。

Look! Some of the students are cleaning the library.

. Some rice in the bag has been sold out.

2)any多用于疑问句、条件句和否定句中,表示“一些,任何”用作形容词时,后面可以接①不可数名词+单数动词;②可数名词+复数动词。

If you have any questions, please ask me.

There isn't any orange in the bottle.

Have you got any tea?

3)any和some也可以作代词用,表示“一些”。any多用于疑问句或否定句中,some多用于肯定句中。

How many people can you see in the picture?

I can't see any.

If you have no money, I'll lend you some.

注意:与some, any结合的词如something, somebody, someone, anything, anyone, anybody在肯定句、否定句、疑问句、条件句中的用法,大致和some, any的用法相同。

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