中考英语语法之“介词+关系代词”

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:中考  
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谈谈“介词+关系代词”的用法

一、用法说明

介词+whom只能指人;介词+ which只能指物。如:

Look, there comes Tom, for whom I have waiting for an hour. 瞧,汤姆来啦,我等他等了一个小时。

Last Saturday evening, I went to Wu Dong’s birthday party, in which I met a foreigner named Jim. 上周星期六的晚上我去参加了吴东的生日聚会,在会上我会到了一个叫吉姆的外国人。

She came into the house, on whose wall there was a portrait of Einstein. 她进入了房间,房子的墙壁上有一张爱因斯坦的画像。

二、注意事项

(1) 有时,前面的介词可移到定语从句的中间或后面,此时whom可用who, that代替;which可以用that代替。而且who, whom, which, that都可省略。如:

The man with whom you talked just now is our manager. —The man who you talked with just now is our manager. 你刚才与他谈话的那个人就是我们的经理。

He handed me a pen, with which I wrote down my address for him. —He handed me a pen, which I wrote down my address with for him. 他递给我一支钢笔,我就用那支钢笔给他写下了我的地址。

(2) 当先行词是时间、地点、原因从句时,介词+ which一般在定语从句中分别做时间、地点、原因状语,于是介词+ which可以分别用when, where, why代替。但若介词+ which不是作时间、地点、原因状语,则不能用when, where, why代替。如:

Last week, I visited Shanghai, in which I have made several friends. —Last week, I visited Shanghai, where I have made several friends. 上周我参观了上海,在那儿我叫上几个朋友。

I will remember the day forever on which I won the first place in the contest. —I will remember the day forever when I won the first place in the contest. 我将永远记住我在竞赛中获得第一名的那一天。

三、介词的选用

介词+关系代词引导定语从句时,介词往往受上下文的约束,究竟使用哪个介词时得从下面几方面来进行考虑。

(1) 从先行词跟介词的搭配习惯出发。如:

In front of my house, there is a tree, in which some birds are singing. 我的房子前有一棵树,鸟儿正在树上唱歌。(在树上一般用介词in)

(2) 从定语从句中的动词、形容词对介词的习惯要求出发。如:

The computer for which I paid 5,000yuan is made in Shenzhen. 我花了五千元所买的这台电脑使深圳造的。( pay 与for搭配)

(3) 从先行词、定语从句中的动词或形容词两方面同时考虑出发。如:

Do you know the girl with whom the man talked just now? 你认识跟那个男谈话的女孩吗?(talk 究竟接to, with还是接about, 这该由动词及现行词一起决定)

(4) 复合介词+关系代词。如:

Go down this road, at the end of which you can see a high building and it is our office building. 沿着条路走,在路的尽头你会看到一座高大的建筑,那就是我们的办公大楼。

(5) 名词+介词+ 关系代词。如:

He has three children, one of whose children is studying abroad now. 他又三个小孩,其中一个在国外读书。

注意:当定语从句的动词与介词是不可分割的固定搭配时,介词不能放到关系代词之前。如:

She has a little daughter, who is looked after by her grandma. 就不能写成:She has a little daughter, after whom is looked by her grandma. 因为,look after 是不可分开的固定短语。

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