主动语态变为被动语态的方法

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主动语态变为被动语态的方法

一、简单句的主动语态变被动语态

(1) 通常的办法是:将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构中的主语,将主动结构中的谓语动词变为“be / get +过去分词”形式,将主动结构中的主语变为介词by的宾语(若动作的执行者没有必要说明则可以省略该by短语)。如:

Li Lei planted the tree last year. → The tree was planted by Li Lei last year. 这棵树是李蕾去年栽的。

Workers made the machines in Changsha. → The machines were made in Changsha. 这些机器是长沙造的。

(2) 将含有复合宾语的句子变为被动语态时,应将宾语变为被动结构的主语,而宾语的补足语则留在原处成为主语补足语。如:

He painted the door green yesterday. →The door was painted green yesterday. 昨天门被漆成绿色了。

注意:表示“使、让”的动词make, have等,以及感官动词see, watch, observe, feel, hear, listen to, look at等,在主动语态中,接不定式做宾语补足语时,不定式前的 to 要省略,而变为被动语态时,成为主语补足语的不定式,则必须带to。如:

I saw him go into the teachers’office. →He was seen to go into the teachers’office. 看见他进入了教师办公室。

(3) 带双宾语的句子变为被动语态时,既可将直接宾语变为被动语态的主语,而在间接宾语前加to 或for留在动词之后;也可将间接宾语变为被动结构的主语,而直接宾语留在动词之后。但一般采用后一种用法。如:

He gave me the pen last year. →I was given the pen last year. / The pen was given to me last year. 这支笔是去年给我的。

【说明】一般说来,间接宾语前带to的动词有:bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, post, send, show, take, teach, tell, write, throw等;间接宾语前带for的动词有:book, buy, call, cook, do, get, make, save等。

(4) 动词believe, consider, declare, expect, know, report, say, suppose, think等的被动语态,常有两种结构形式。如:

He was said to get hurt in the car accident. 人们说他在车祸中受伤了。

It was said that he got hurt in the car accident. 人们说他在车祸中受伤了。

(5) 短语动词变被动语态时,短语动词后面的介词或副词不能省略。如:

She has never been operated on before. 她从未动过手术。

The baby was looked after by her sister. 这婴儿由她的姐姐照顾。

His plan was laughed at by everyone. 他的计划大家都嘲笑。

二、复合句的主动语态变被动语态

复合句的主动语态变被动语态时,复合句中的主句和从句都须同时变为被动语态。如:

Li Lei told us that the teacher praised him today. →We were told that Li Lei was praised by the teacher today. 有人告诉我们说今天李蕾受到了老师的表扬。

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