“be said+不定式”的七种结构

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“be said+不定式”的七种结构

结构一 “be said+不定式一般式”

该结构主要有两个用法:

1. 表示不定式所表示的动作尚未发生或即将要发生。如:

They are said to leave soon. 据说他们很快就要离开。

He is said to move to the South this winter. 据说他今年冬天要搬到南方去。

2. 有时不表示将来,而表示一般情况(尤其是当不定式表示状态而非动作时)。如:

This friend of hers is said to be very rich. 她的这个朋友据说很有钱。

His company is said to be in trouble. 据说他的公司遇到了困难。

People who cannot distinguish between colours are said to be colour-blind. 不能辨别颜色的人称为色盲。

Women are often said to be more emotional than men. 女人常常被说成是比男人易于动感情。

结构二 “be said+不定式进行式”

该搭配表示不定式所表示的动作正在进行。如:

He is said to be doing fine at school. 据说他在学校表现很好。

The children are said to be playing by the river. 据说孩子们在河边玩。

结构三 “be said+不定式完成式”

该搭配表示不定式所表示的动作已经完成。如:

They are said to have left London. 据说他们已经离开伦敦。

He is said to have written another TV play. 据说他又写了一部电视剧。

Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cancer. 据说布朗先生死于肝癌。

结构四 “be said+不定式完成进行式”

该搭配强调不定式所表示的动作迄今为止已经持续了一段时间。如:

The family was said to have lived there for 30 years. 据说这一家人在那儿住了30年。

The battle was said to have been going on for two days. 据说战斗已经进行两天了。

结构五 “be said+不定式一般式的被动式”

该搭配表示不定式所表示的动作尚未发生或即将要发生,同时它还表示被动意义。如:

The case against Mr. White is said to be heard tomorrow. 据说怀特先生被起诉一案定于明天开庭。

有时也可以不表示将来,而表示一般情况。如:

The old castle is said to be haunted. 这座古堡据说有鬼魂出没。

结构六 “be said+不定式的完成式的被动式”

该搭配表示不定式所表示的动作已经发生,同时它还表示被动意义。如:

Mr Smith is said to have been told the news. 据说已经有人把这消息告诉了史密斯先生。

They were said to have been killed in the battle. 据说他们已在战斗中被杀死了。

This book is said to have been translated into English. 据说这本书已译成英语。

结构七 用于“There be said+不定式”

There is said to be plenty of oil off our coast, 据说我国沿海有大量的石油。

There is said to have been an earthquake in Japan. 据说日本发生了一次地震。

There was said to be disagreement between the Prime Minister and the Home Secretary. 听说,首相和内政大臣意见有分歧。

【几点注意】

1.“be said+不定式”结构只有被动式,没有主动式。如:

据说他懂得许多语言。

正:He is said to know many languages.

误:They say him to know many languages.

但是,可以换成it’s said that…句式。如:

正:It is said that he knows many languages.

2.“be said+不定式”结构中的不定式有时可能是目的状语。如:

These words were said to frighten you. 说那些话是为了吓唬你。

【思维发散】与“be said+不定式”结构相似的还有“be reported (believed, supposed, thought, etc) + 不定式”等,其用法和搭配均大致相同。如:

She is believed to be staying with her aunt. 可以相信她住在她姑姑家里。

There is supposed to be a train at 12:37. 12点37分想必有一班火车。

Thousands were reported to be working as slaves there. 据报导数以千计的人在那里作奴隶。

He is reported to have been chosen chairman of the trade union. 据说他当选了工会主席。

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