可用于引导状语从句的“六类名词”

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可用于引导状语从句的“六类名词”

英语中有些名词结构可用作从属连词,用以引导状语从句,且主要是时间状语从句。这类结构归纳起来有以下六类:

一、the + 瞬间名词

其中的瞬间名词主要包括moment, minute, instant, second等,其意为“一……就……”,相当于as soon as。如:

The minute he saw her he fell in love. 他对她一见倾心。

I’ll telephone the minute there’s any change. 一有变更我立即用电话通知。

Telephone me the moment (that) you get the results. 你一有结果,马上给我打电话。

I was so tired that I fell asleep the instant I closed my eyes. 我很累,一合上眼就睡着了。

She put down the receiver the second she recognized my voice. 她一听出是我的声音,马上就放下电话听筒。

注:其中的瞬间名词后可接that,也可省略。另外,有的个别副词(如directly / immediately等)也可表示类似意思。如:

Immediately the meal was over, he switched on the radio. 饭一吃完他就把收音机打开。

二、the + 季节名词

其中的季节名词包括spring, summer, autumn, winter,其意为“在……的那年春天、夏天、秋天、冬天。如:

His wife left him the spring he went abroad. 在他出国的那年春天,他的妻子离开了他。

He sold his house and went to the south the summer he lost his job. 在他失业的那年夏天,他卖掉房子去了南方。

He was sent to prison the winter his third daughter was born. 在他第三个女儿出生的那年冬天,他被关进了监狱。

She got married the autumn she graduated from college. 她大学毕业的那年秋天就结婚了。

三、the+时间名词

其中的时间名词主要包括hour, day, night, week, month, season, year等,其意为“在……的时候、那天、那个晚上、那周、那个月、那个季节、那年”。如:

The hour he was in her office, he felt very sad. 当他在她办公室的时候,他感到很伤心。

The day he returned home, his father was already dead. 他回家的那一天,他的父亲已经死了。

The night I went to see her, she had left for Beijing to attend an important meeting. 就我去看她的那个晚上,她到北京去开一个重要的会议了。

Mr Smith didn't go to work the week his wife was ill. 史密斯先生在他妻子生病的那个星期没去上班。

The year he lived in the country, he learned a lot. 他在乡下呆的那一年,他学到了不少东西。

四、the +序数词+time

其中的序数词包括first, second, third, fourth等,其意为“当第几次……的时候”。如:

My girlfriend beat me at poker the first time we played. 我头一次和女朋友打扑克,她就把我赢了。

The second time I saw her, she looked like an old woman. 我第二次见到她时,她看上去像一个老太婆。

The third time I went there, I found all of them had left and the offices were all empty. 我第三次去那儿时,我发现他们都离开了,所有的办公室都是空的。

注意:

1. next, last也具有类似序数词的性质,因此也具有以上用法。如:

Next time you come in, please close the door. 下次你进来,请关门。

The last time we talked he said he needed another two days. 上次我们谈话时他说他还需要两天。

2. the first time, the second time, the third time 等用作连词引导时间状语从句时,其前通常要有定冠词,而 (the) next time, (the) last time引导状语从句时,其中的冠词可以省略,如下面这道上海高考题,其答案是C,不是A:

I thought her nice and honest_________ I met her.

A. first time B. for the first time

C. the first time D. by the first time

五、不定代词+ time

其中的不定代词主要包括each, every, any等。如:

Every time I ring her, the phone is engaged. 我每次给她打电话,电话都占线。

Every time I see him he either wants to tell me his trouble or borrow some money. 每次我见到他,他不是向我诉苦,就是要向我借钱。

He felt nervous each time she spoke to him. 每次她和他讲话,他都感到紧张。

Any time you come to London do look me up. 你无论什么时候到伦敦来,一定要来看我。

注意:every time, each time, any time用作连词引导状语从句时其前习惯上不用冠词,它与the first time, the second time, the third time 等引导时间状语从句时其前必须要用定冠词不同。

六、其他名词结构

以上归纳的名词结构均用于引导时间状语从句,有些其他结构还可引导其他性质的状语从句,如 the way 可用于引导方式状语从句,表示“像……一样”。如:

The didn’t do it the way we do now. 那时他们不像我们现在这样行事。

Joyce looked at me the way a lot of girls did. 乔伊丝像许多姑娘那样瞧着我。

注:这样用的the way与as用法相似。如:

Hold it in both hands, the way (=as) Mummy does. 用两只手捧住,像妈妈那样。

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