学好分词逻辑主语的四个关键点

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学好分词逻辑主语的四个关键点

关键点一:把握分词逻辑主语的概念

分词属非谓语动词,即不用作谓语的动词,所以它没有真正的主语。但是,分词作为动词的一种形式,它应有自己理论上或逻辑上的主语,即逻辑主语。如:

I often hear him singing this song. 我经常听他唱这首歌。(him 是singing的逻辑主语)

Hearing the news, he couldn’t help crying. 听到这消息,他禁不住哭了。(he是hearing的逻辑主语)

若用的是过去分词或现在分词的被动式,则上面提到的逻辑主语实为“逻辑宾语”。如:

I often hear this song sung. 我经常听到有人唱这首歌。(this song是sung的逻辑主语,但是sing 的逻辑宾语)

I saw her being taken to the operating room. 我看见她被送到手术室。(her是being taken 的逻辑主语,但是take 的逻辑宾语)

关键点二:提防使用分词逻辑主语的错点

分词作状语,它的逻辑主语通常应是句子的主语,否则会出错。请看下题:

1. Finding her car stolen, _________.

A. a policeman was asked to help

B. the area was searched thoroughly

C. it was looked for everywhere

D. she hurried to a policeman for help

此题答案应选D,因为句首用作状语的现在分词短语finding her car stolen 的逻辑主语应是“她”,而不是 a policeman, the area, it 等。

在使用分词的逻辑主语时还要注意根据句意判断是主动还是被动。如:

2. _________ many times, he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told B. Though to be told

C. Having told D. He was told

根据句意,he 与 tell 应是被动关系。从时间上看,应该是“被告诉”在先,“没有理解”在后,故选A。比较下题由于句中用了并列连词but,情况有所不同:

3. _________ many times, but he still didn’t understand it.

A. Having been told B. Though he was told

C. To have been told D. He was told

此题答案选D,句中的并列连词 but 表明整个句子为并列句,同时表明 but 前应是一个独立的句子,而不能是一个非谓语动词短语(所以不能选A或C)。

关键点三:牢记分词逻辑主语的特例

一般说来,分词作状语,它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,但事实上有少数例外的特殊情况:

1. 某些表示说话人态度的一些惯用分词表达,它们在用作状语时其逻辑主语可以与句子主语不一致。如:

Generally speaking, women live longer than men. 一般说来,女人比男人活得长。

Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed. 从你的话看,他应当能成功。

Considering the distance, he arrived very quickly. 考虑到路程,他到达得很快。

Taking everything into consideration, you should leave. 考虑到各种因素,你最好离开。

2. 当句子含有先行主语it或there时,有时用作状语的分词短语可以与先行主语不一致。如:

Having so little time, there was not much that I could do. 由于时间很少,我能做的事很有限。

Being French, it’s surprising that she’s such a terrible cook. 她是法国人,但她做饭做得那么糟真是令人感到惊奇。

3. 当分词已转化为介词或连词,此时也无需考虑主语一致问题。如:

Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do? 要是她不来我们怎么办?(supposing为连词,意为“假若”)

Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. 考虑到他们没有经验,这工作已做得很不错了。(given为介词,意为“考虑到”)

4. 当分词暗含的逻辑主语为表示泛指意义的one或you时,也无需考虑主语的一致性问题。如:

In doing such work, patience is needed. 做这种工作需要耐心。(=When one does such work, patience is needed.)

关键点四:注意分词的独立主格结构

在通常情况下,分词作状语时它的逻辑主语应与句子主语一致,若不一致,则应改用其他句型。如:

误:Crossing the road, a car knocked him down.

正:Crossing the road, he was knocked down by a car. 过马路时他被车撞倒了。

正:When he was crossing the road, a car knocked him down. 他过马路时车子把他撞倒了。

解决状语分词的逻辑主语与句子主语不一致的问题,也可在分词前加一个名词或代词,使之成为分词的逻辑主语。由于加在分词前的名词或代词要用主格形式,故称分词的独立主格结构。如:

The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。

The weather being fine, we went swimming. 天气很好,我们就去游泳了。

He being absent, nothing couldn’t be done. 由于他缺席,什么事也干不成。

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