搞定省略难题的经典方法

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搞定省略难题的经典方法

省略是指在不影响句子意思明了、清楚的前提下,将句子中的某些成分省略掉,从而使所表达的内容更加紧凑和简洁。近年来,许多高考试题为增加其灵活性和考查考生综合运用语言的能力,经常利用省略这一手段来编制试题,或考查考生对省略句的判断和理解,或借省略为干扰考查其他相关知识点,并因此出现了不少同学们望而生畏的难题,本文拟就如何应对这类试题作一分析,并为同学们介绍五大攻克省略难题的方法。

一、整句还原法

所谓整句还原法,即指通过分析题干所提供的情景或句子结构,将命题者省略的部分补充完整,然后再根据完整的句子进行分析和答题。如:

1. “What were you trying to prove to the police?” “_________ I was last night.”

A. That B. When C. Where D. What

分析:此题应选 C,其余三项均有可能误选。做对此题的关键是要明确答语部分为省略句,若将其补充完整,即为:I was trying to prove to the police where I was last night. 其中where 引导的是一个宾语从句。请再看以下类似试题:

(1) “What made her so happy?” “_________ her son passed the college entrance examinations.”

A. That B. 不填 C. Since D. For

此题选A,若将其补充完整,即为:That her son passed the college entrance examinations made her so happy.

(2) “What made you so upset?” “_________ my wallet.”

A. Lost B. Losing C. Having lost D. Being lost

此题选B,若将其补充完整,即为:Losing my wallet made me so upset.

(3) “What did she tell you?” “_________ she would be late”

A. That B. When C. Where D. Whether

此题选A,若将其补充完整,即为:She told me that she would be late.

2. I want to improve my English, but I don’t know _________. What can you suggest?

A. when B. how C. why D. where

分析:此题应选 B,其余三项均有可能误选,其实此句为省略句,若将此句补充完整,即为:…but I don’t know how to improve my English. 请看以下类似试题:

(1) I think the door is locked, but I’d better go and make sure it _________.

A. does B. has C. was D. is

答案选D,为 …and make sure it is locked 之省略。

(2) Dr Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge. I can’t remember _________.

A. where B. there C. which D. that

答案选C,为I can’t remember which city he comes from 之省略。

(3) He didn’t sell half as many computers as he thought he _________.

A. had B. was C. would D. sold

答案选C,为He didn’t sell half as many computers as he thought he would sell 之省略。

二、常识语境法

常识语境法指的是,同学们在补充省略成分时要充分考虑句子本身的语境,有时还要结合一定的生活常识和学科常识,即补充完整的句子不仅要符合语法,而且要符合情理。如:

1. “I like you more than her, my dear.” “You mean more than _________love her or more than she loves _________?”

A. you, me B. she, you C. I, me D. I, you

分析:做对此题的关键是要弄清填空句是个省略句,补充完整为 You mean that you love me more than you love her or that you love me more than she loves me? 句意为“你是说你爱我胜过你爱她,还是说你爱我胜过她爱我?”,所以答案应选A。若选其他答案,从语法上也是对的,但不合情理。

2. Boris has brains. In fact, I doubt whether anyone in the class has _________IQ.

A. a high B. a higher C. the higher D. the highest

分析:此题答案为B。此句实为Boris has brains. In fact, I doubt whether anyone in the class has a higher IQ than him之省略。省略than him后不仅句意仍然清楚,而且显得更为简洁。句意为“……我怀疑班上有没有哪个人比他智商更高”,即“我认为他可能是班上智商最高的”。请再看以下类似的题目(分析理由同上,答案均选A):

(1) How beautifully she sings! I have never heard _________ voice.

A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the best

(2) “I’ve never found _________ job.” “Congratulations.”

A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the best

(3) “What do you think of the service here?” “Oh, wonderful. We couldn’t have found _________ place.”

A. a better B. a best C. the better D. the best

(4) How cold it is! We’ve never had _________ day this winter.

A. a colder B. a cold C. the coldest D. the colder

三、一致验证法

所谓一致验证法,即指在补充省略成分时,要注意考虑句子结构的前后一致性,此法尤其适合于做因承前省略而拟编的试题。如:

1. I think I can fix it tomorrow. If _________, you’ll have to wait till Friday.

A. not B. can’t C. don’t D. won’t

分析:答案应选A。if not为if I can’t fix it tomorrow 之省略。其中的if I can’t fix it tomorrow与前面的 I can fix it tomorrow一致。注意,此题不能选B,因为句子已省略了主语。下面请再看一个类似的例子:

If the weather is fine, we’ll go. If _________, _________.

A. not, not B. no, no C. not, no D. no, not

此题应选A。If not, not. 为 If the weather is NOT fine, we will NOT go. 全句意为“如果天气好, 我们就去;如果天气不好,我们就不去”。该句的特点是:后句与前句的用词和句式完全相同, 只是前句为肯定,后句为否定,为了简洁起见, 于是将后句与前句相同部分省略,只保留否定词 not。

2. They are different in form but _________ in meaning.

A. not B. no C. aren’t D. don’t

分析:答案选A,but not in meaning为 but they are not different in meaning 之省略。又如:

(1) In the accident the child was hurt, but the mother _________.

A. killing B. to kill C. killed D. kill

答案选C,but the mother killed 为 but the mother was killed 之省略。

(2) The apartment’s fine for two people, but _________.

A. no more B. no any C. not more D. not any

答案选C,but not more 为 but it is not fine for more than two people 之省略。

四、语法分析法

英语中有些省略是由特定的语法现象造成的,同学们在做题时首先要确定句子的省略涉及什么语法结构或语法现象等,然后再根据相应的语法知识来分析作答。如:

1. “Who has eaten all the cake, Jim?” “Oh, _________ must your two pet dogs.”

A. it B. they C. that D. which

分析:许多同学可能认为此题应选B,因为其后的your two pet dogs为复数。但实际上,此题的最佳答案就是A,不仅涉及强调句型这一考点,而且是其省略形式,此句若补充完整,即为:It must be your pet dogs that have eaten all the cake.

2. If you are planning to spend your money having fun this week, better _________ it—you’ve got some big bills coming.

A. forget B. forgot C. forgetting D. to forget

分析:此题最佳答案为A。考查had better后接动词原形的用法。但是考题中将you had better这一结构省略成better,致使许多同学一时看不出来。又如:

Better go with him. 最好同他一起去。

Better have the operation right now. 你最好还是现在就动手术。

3. “Would you like to come for a walk with me?” “I’d prefer _________, thank you.”

A. not to B. to not C. not D. can’t

分析:答案选A,I’d prefer not to 为 I’d prefer not to come for a walk 之省略。注意,在该省略结构中,用以代表不定式的 to 不宜省去。请看类例:

(1) “Shall I give the dog a chocolate?” “It’s better _________.”

A. not to B. to not C. don’t D. can’t

答案选A,为It’s better not to give the dog a chocolate 之省略。注意,不定式的否定式要将not 置于不定式符号to 之前,而不是之后。

(2) I would mend your radio, but I don’t know _________.

A. how B. to C. how to D. to how

答案选C,为 but I don’t know how to mend it 之省略。

五、逻辑推断法

有的省略试题难度比较大,不仅涉及语法知识、生活常识等,而且还要求考生根据题干所提供的信息进行逻辑推理。如:

1. She’s too thin. She _________ gain some weight but she _________ too little.

A. would, ate B. will, eats C. would, eats D. will, ate

分析:此题有些难度,许多同学不知如何分析。我们先根据题目所提供的选项将句意大致勾出来:她太瘦了。她会增加体重的,但她吃得太少了。根据句首 She’s too thin 这一所给信息可知,“她瘦”应是客观事实。按照一般的常识,“吃得少”就会引致“瘦”,“吃得多”就会导致“胖”,由于根据句首的信息,“她瘦”是客观事实,所以她“吃得少”也应是事实,所以第二空应填 eats(即用一般现在时表示客观事实)。根据上面的分析:“她瘦”和“她吃得少”均为客观事实,那么“她体重会增加”就应是假设(注意句中的转折连词 but),所以第一空应填 would。其实,此句可理解为but前省略了一个条件状语 if she ate more (如果她多吃一点的话)。所以,此题最佳答案选C。

2. “Everyone says you are a good student. You never sleep in class, do you?” “_________.”

A. Yes, never B. Yes, sometimes C. No, sometimes D. Oh, really

分析:答案选B,答句是对针对 You never sleep in class, do you? 这一问句来回答的,Yes, sometimes 为 Yes, I do. Sometimes I sleep in class 之省略,其意为“不,上课有时睡觉”。若选其余几项,均会导致逻辑不通。请看类例:

“You’ve never been to the village, have you?” “_________. It is the most beautiful village I’ve ever seen.”

A. No, never B. No, I have C. No, only once D. Yes, only once

分析:答案选D,Yes, only once 为 Yes, I have. But I’ve been there only once. 之省略,句意为“不,我去过,但只去过一次”。注意句末的 It is the most beautiful village I’ve ever seen 表明“我”去过那儿,所以不能选A。

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