分词状语的七大理解技巧

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我们可以肯定地说,分词的状语用法是所有分词用法中最重要的,也是最难掌握的。各类英语考题也说明,分词作状语的用法是所有分词用法中最常考的。因此,本文拟对分词作状语的用法作一小结和分析,同时归纳一些行之有效的做题方法和理解技巧,以帮助大家掌握其用法。 一、用作时间状语

1. 典型例句

Seeing the cat, the mouse ran off. 见到猫,老鼠就跑了。

The work finished, he went home. 工作做完后,他就回家了。

2. 理解技巧

分词(短语)用作时间状语通常可转换成时间状语从句(引导时间状语的从属连词需根据句意来确定),如上面两句也可转换成:

When [As soon as] the mouse saw the cat, it ran off.

After the work was finished, he went home.

3. 考题实例

When _________ different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities.

A. compared B. being compared

C. comparing D. having compared

【分析】此题答案选C,分词短语when comparing different cultures相当于时间状语从句when we compare different cultures。

二、用作原因状语

1. 典型例句

Being very weak, she couldn't move. 她由于身体虚弱而不能行动。

His car broken down, he had to walk. 他的车坏了,所以只好走路。

Much discouraged, she moved on to London. 她很沮丧,搬到了伦敦。

2. 理解技巧

分词(短语)用作原因状语通常可转换成由as, because, since, now that 等引导的原因状语从句,如上面三句也可转换成:

As she was very weak, she couldn’t move.

Because his car broken was down, he had to walk.

Because she was much discouraged, she moved on to London.

3. 考题实例

(1) _________ with so much trouble, we failed to complete the task on time.

A. Faced B. Face C. Facing D. To face

【分析】答案选A。现在分词短语faced with so much trouble可转换成原因状语从句because we were faced with so much trouble。

(2) _________ for the breakdown of the school computer network, Alice was in low spirits.

A. Blaming B. Blamed C. To blame D. To be blamed

【分析】答案选B。现在分词短语blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network可转换成原因状语从句because she was blamed for the breakdown of the school computer network。

三、用作条件状语

1. 典型例句

Working hard, you will succeed. 如果努力工作,你就可以成功。

Adding them all up, we can find the answer. 如果把它们加起来,我们就可以得到答案。

United, we stand; divided, we fall. 团结则存,分裂则亡。

Given more time, we could have done it better. 如果多给点时间,我们可以做得更好。

2. 理解技巧

分词(短语)用作条件状语通常可转换成由从属连词if引导的条件状语从句,如上面几句也可转换成:

If you work hard, you will succeed.

If we add them all up, we can find the answer.

If we are united, we stand; if we are divided, we fall.

If we had been given more time, we could have done it better.

3. 考题实例

_________ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player.

A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given

【分析】答案选D。give 与其逻辑主语 he 是动宾关系,用过去分词,故选 D。分词短语 Given time 可转换成条件状语从顺 If he is given time。

四、用作让步状语

1. 典型例句

Although living miles away, he attended the course. 虽然住在几英里以外,他仍去上课。

Defeated, he remained a popular boxer. 虽然被击败了,他仍是一个受欢迎的拳击手。

2. 理解技巧

分词(短语)用作让步状语通常可转换成由从属连词though, although, no matter…等引导的让步状语从句,如上面两句也可转换成:

Although he lived miles away, he attended the course.

Thought he was defeated, he remained a popular boxer.

3. 考题实例

No matter how frequently _________, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world.

A. performed B. performing C. to be performed D. being performed

【分析】答案选A。现在分词短语performed在此相当于they are performed。No matter how frequently they are performed的意思是“无论它们(指贝多芬的作品)被演奏多少次”。

五、用作伴随状语

1. 典型例句

He sat in the chair reading a newspaper. 他坐在椅子上看报。

Don't you sit there doing nothing. 别什么也不干坐在那里。

He came in, followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。

2. 理解技巧

理解“伴随状语”的关键是要理解“伴随”二字。分词(短语)用作伴随状语时,它表示的动作伴随句子谓语动作同时发生,即句子谓语所表示的动作为主要动作,分词短语所表示的动作伴随性的次要动作。

3. 考题实例

(1) Don’t sit there _________ nothing. Come and help me with this table.

A. do B. to do C. doing D. and doing

(2) My cousin came to see me from the country, _________ me a full basket of fresh fruits.

A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought

(3) Whenever he was asked why he was late for class, he would answer carelessly, always ________ the same thing.

A. saying B. said C. to say D. having said

(4) We often provide our children with toys, footballs or basketballs, _______ that all children like these things.

A. thinking B. think C. to think D. thought

【分析】以上四题答案分别为CBAA。

六、用作方式状语

1. 典型例句

He earns a living driving a truck. 他靠开卡车谋取生。

I'm returning you letter as requested. 我按要求给你退信。

2. 理解技巧

分词(短语)用作方式状语与用作伴随状语的情形比较接近。有时用作方式状语的现在分词可以转换成by doing sth的结构,如上面第一句也可换成:

He earns a living by driving a truck.

七、用作结果状语

He fired, killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。

He died, leaving his wife with five children. 他死了,留下他妻子和五个儿子。

It rained and rained, vehicles bogged and bridges washed out. 雨不停地下,车辆陷入泥沼,桥梁被水冲去。

2. 理解技巧

分词(短语)用作结果状语时,通常可转换成并列句,如上面两句也可转换成:

He fired and killed one of the passers-by.

He died and left his wife with five children.

It rained and rained, and vehicles were bogged and bridges were washed out.

3. 考题实例

(1) He glanced over at her, _________ that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together.

A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted

【分析】答案选A,此句也可换成:He glanced over at her and noted that though she was tiny, she seemed very well put together.

(2) Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, _________ a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4.

A. have reached B. reaching

C. to reach D. to be reaching

【分析】答案选B,此句也可换成:Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year and reached a record US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4.

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