中考英语语法:一般现在时

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:中考  
编辑点评: 英语在中考中所占的比重不小。想要取得高分,英语语法基础得打好。小编特意为大家整理了中考常考的英语语法点,希望能够帮到大家。

一、一般现在时表现在

1. 表示现在经常性或习惯性的动作。如:

My sister wears glasses. 我妹妹戴眼镜。

He often goes to the cinema. 他经常去看电影。

【注】询问某人的习惯时,有时还可用ever。如:

“Do you ever eat meat?” “No, I never eat meat.”“你吃肉吗?”“从不吃肉。”

2. 表示现在(或经常性)的情况或状态。如:

Mother is ill. 母亲病了。

He is always like that. 他总是那样。

He likes living in the country. 他喜欢住在乡下。

We need a lot of money. 我们需要一大笔钱。

3. 表示现在的能力、特征、职业等。如:

He sings well. 他唱歌唱得好。

Mr. Smith teaches French. 史密斯先生教法语。

4. 表示客观真理、科学事实、格言以及不受时间限制的客观存在。如:

Summer follows spring. 春去夏来。Knowledge is power. 知识就是力量。

The earth turns around the sun. 地球绕着太阳转。

二、一般现在时表将来

1. 当主句为将来时态或表示将来意义时,时间和条件的状语从句必须用一般现在时表将来。如:

I’ll write to her when I have time. 我有空会给她写信。

Turn off the lights before you leave. 走前关灯。

If we hurry, we may catch the bus. 如果赶紧走我们可能赶得上公共汽车。

Tell me in case you get into difficulty. 遇到困难请告诉我。

【注】① 除表示时间和条件的状语从句外,表示让步、相似、比例的从句也必须用一般现在时表示将来。如:

I’ll follow him wherever he goes. 他去哪儿,我就跟着去哪儿。

Whatever you say, I won’t pay. 无论你说什么,我都不会付钱。

Whether we help him or not, he will fail. 无论我们帮他与否,他都会失败。

I’ll have a good time whether I win or lose. 赢也好,输也好,我都将会玩好。

The more you eat, the fatter you will become. 你吃得越多就会越胖。

② 另外,当主句为用将来时态时,定语从句也通常用一般现在时表将来。如:

I’ll give you anything you ask for. 你要什么我都给你。

You can have anything I find. 我找到的任何东西你都可以拿去。

Everyone who comes first will get a present. 每个先来的人都可得到一份礼物。

2. 按照英语习惯,一个句子中若主要动词已经表明了所谈论动作的时间,那么与之相关的其他动词就不必再次指明同一时间,而往往使用一个比较简单的时态,如用一般现在时表示一般将来时等。比较。如:

This discovery means that we will spend less on food.这一发现意味着我们将减少在食品上的花费。

This discovery will mean that we spend less on food. 这一发现意味着我们将减少在食品上的花费。

3. 在make sure(弄清楚),make certain(弄清楚),take care(注意,当心),be careful(注意,当心),mind(注意),watch(注意)等后的that从句中通常也只用一般现在时表示将来意义。如:

Take care that it does not occur again. 注意别再发生这样的事。

We must take care that no one sees us. 我们必须注意别让人看见我们。

Make sure you come back soon. 你要保证快点回来。

Be careful that you don’t hurt her feelings. 当心别伤了她的感情。

Watch that the baby doesn’t go near the heater. 注意别让宝宝接近加热器。

Mind you read the examination questions carefully before you begin to answer them. 在答题前要注意仔细阅读考题。

【注】在it doesn’t matter, I don’t care, I don’t mind 等结构(以及类似结构)后的名词性从句也通常用一般现在表示将来意义。如:

It doesn’t matter where we go on holiday. 我们去哪儿度假都行。

Does it matter who goes first? 谁先去这有关系吗?

I don’t care whether we win or lose. 我不在乎我们是赢还是输。

Don’t you care what happens to them? 难道你不关心他们出什么事了?

4. 在I hope , I bet, see (to it) 等后的宾语从句中通常用一般现在时表示将来意义,但有时也可直接用将来时态。如:

I hope that you like [will like] it. 你希望你会喜欢它。

I bet it rains [will rain] tomorrow. 我打赌明天会下雨。

See (to it) that children don’t catch cold. 当心别让孩子感冒。

I’ll see that nobody disturbs [will disturb] you. 我将确保没人打扰你。

【注】see (to it) 后的that从句通常用一般现在时表将来,直接用将来的情形较少见。

5. 在as, than 引出的比较状语从句中可用一般现在时表示将来,也可直接用将来时态。如:

We’ll get there as soon as you do [will]. 你一到,我们就到。

We’ll probably drive faster than you do [will]. 我们开车很可能比你快。

6. 表示按规定、时间表、计划或安排要发生的动作。如:

Are you on duty next weekend? 下周末你上班吗?

The train leaves at 12:00. 火车12点开出。

Where do we go now? 我们现在到哪里去?

【注】用于此用法时,句中通常有具体的时间状语。

7. 当主句为将来时态时,与之相关的by the time后接的从句要用一般现在时表示将来意义。如:

By the time he comes, I will have left. 等他到时,我会已离开了。

The film will have started by the time we get to the cinema.我们到电影院时电影会已经开始了。

8. 表示现在将要宣布某事。如:

I declare the meeting open. 我宣布会议开始。

We learn Lesson Ten today. 今天我们学习第10课。

9. 表示客观性很强的将来。如:

Today is Friday, so tomorrow is Saturday. 今天是星期五,所以明天是星期六。

My birthday is on a Sunday this year. 我今年的生日在星期天。

【注】有时说话者对某一将来事实非常肯定,也用一般现在时。如:

The future is bright. 前途是光明的。

Final victory is ours. 最后的胜利是我们的。

三、一般现在时表过去

1. 用于某些动词(tell, say, hear, learn, gather等)表示不确定的过去时间。如:

John tells me you will leave tomorrow. 约翰告诉我你明天离开。

I hear that he got married last month. 我听说他上个月结婚了。

Mary says you told her to come over here. 玛丽说是你让她到这儿来的。

2. 当要陈述一个客观事实时,有时即使有过去时间状语也可用一般现在时。如:

The story is set in the summer of 1937. 故事的背景是1937年夏天。

The story begins in the year 1937. 故事开始于1937年。

四、典型一般现在时考题分析

1. I ______ ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year.

A. will play B. have played

C. played D. play

【分析】D。“我的乒乓球是打得相当好的,但自新年以来还一直没有时间去打。”球打得好是现在已有的技能,故用一般现在时。

2. —You’re drinking too much.

—Only at home. No one ______ me but you.

A. is seeing B. had seen

C. sees D. saw

【分析】C。由 only at home 可知“我”只在家里喝得多,除你之外,没有人看见。谈的是现在一般性情况,故用一般现在时。

3. It ______ long before we ______ the result of the experiment.

A. will not be; will know B. is; will know

C. will not be; know D. is; know

【分析】C。句意为:不久之后我们就会知道实验结果。在句型 It is not long before?不久之后就…)中,before 引导的是时间状语从句,用一般现在时表将来。

4. Months ago we sailed ten thousand miles across this open sea, which ______ the Pacific, and we met no storms.

A. was called B. is called

C. had been called D. has been called

【分析】B。因为这是客观事实,现在也叫太平洋,用一般现在时。

5. —What would you do if it ______tomorrow?

—We have to carry it on, since we’ve got everything ready.

A. rain B. rains

C. will rain D. is raining

【分析】B。在条件句中用一般现在时表示将来。

6. —What are you going to do this afternoon?

—I am going to the cinema with some friends. The film ______ quite early, so we ______ to the bookstore after that.

A. finished, are going B. finished, go

C. finishes, are going D. finishes, go

【分析】C。由问句和答语I am going…可知,要用将来时态,排除选项A和B; 电影的开始和结束是影院在时刻表中已有的计划,用一般现在时表示,表示最近的打算或安排,可用现在现进时表示。

7. — Where did you put the car keys?

— Oh, I ______ I put them on the chair because the phone rang as I ______ in.

A. remembered; come B. remembered; was coming

C. remember; come D. remember; was coming

【分析】D。第一空用一般现在时,指的是“现在”还记得; 第二空用过去进行时,指的是当时正在做的事。

8. Look at the timetable. Hurry up! Flight 4026 ______ off at 18:20.

A. takes B. took

C. will be taken D. has taken

【分析】A。用一般现在时表示按规定或时间表预计要发生的事。

9. This machine ______. It hasn’t worked for years.

A. didn’t work B. wasn’t working

C. doesn’t work D. isn’t working

【分析】C。此处讲的是机器目前的状况,故用一般现在时。此题所利用的干扰时态是其后的现在完成时。

10. The house belongs to my aunt but she ______ here any more.

A. hasn’t lived B. didn’t live

C. hadn’t lived D. doesn’t live

【分析】D。指现在的一般情况,故用一般现在时。

11. We live day by day, but in the great things, the time of days and weeks ______ so small that a day is unimportant.

A. is B. are

C. has been D. have been

【分析】A。句子主语为the time,故用谓语要用单数; 再根据句子前后的时态live和is,可知此处宜用一般现在时,不用现在完成时,故选A。

12. The fact that so many people still smoke in public places ______ that we may need nationwide campaign to raise awareness of the risks of smoking.

A. suggest B. suggests

C. suggested D. suggesting

【分析】B。表示目前存在的客观事实,故用一般现在时。句意为:许多人仍在公共场所抽烟,这表明我们需要进行全国性的运动来提高人们对吸烟危害性的认识。

13. My parents have promised to come to see me before I ______ for Africa.

A. have left B. leave

C. left D. will leave

【分析】B。根据主句使用时态和句意可推知,说话者还没去非洲,故可排除选项A和C;又因为时间状语从句要用一般现在时表示将来,故可排除D。句意为:我父母亲答应在我动身去非洲前会来看我。

14. According to the literary review, Shakespeare ______ his characters live through their language in his plays.

A. will make B. had made

C. was making D. makes

【分析】D。由于莎士比亚属于历史名人,要描述他当时的情况,可用一般现在时或一般过去时。由于选项中没有一般过去时,所以选一般现在时。句意为:据文学评论所说,莎士比亚通过戏剧中的语言让他的人物角色栩栩如生。句中引用文学评论,因此用一般现在时。又如:According to the Bible, God created man in his image. 据《圣经》所叙,上帝按自己的形象创造了人。

15. At present, one of the arguments in favor of the new airport ______ that it will bring a lot of jobs to the area.

A. is B. are

C. will be D. was

【分析】A。one of…作主语时,表示单数意义,故可排除复数谓语are;再根据句意及句中时态判断,空格处应用一般现在时。句意为:目前,对新机场比较有利的一个论点是,它可以给这个地区带来很多就业机会。又如:One of the annoyances of working here is the difficulty of parking near the office. 在这里工作有一件伤脑筋的事,就是在办公处附近很难停车。

16. I ______ all the cooking for my family, but recently I’ve been too busy to do it.

A. will do B. do

C. am doing D. had done

【分析】B。此处用一般现在时表示一种经常性的行为,虽然目前并没有这样做。

17. Barbara is easy to recognize as she’s the only one of the women who ______ evening dress.

A. wear B. wears

C. has worm D. have worm

【分析】B。由于one of the women前有only修饰,说明其后的定语从句是修饰one的,而不是修饰women的,所以定语从句中的谓语动词要用单数,故可排除A和D;再根据句意,此处谈的是一般情况,故要用一般现在时,即选B。

18. Every few years, the coal workers ______ their lungs X-rayed to ensure their health.

A. are having B. have

C. have had D. had had

【分析】B。根据句中的every few years(每隔几年)可知,动作带有经常性和规律性,故用一般现在时。又如:The Summer Olympic Games take place every four years. 奥林匹克夏季运动会每四年举行一次。

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