中考英语语法:主谓一致

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:中考  
编辑点评: 英语在中考中所占的比重不小。想要取得高分,英语语法基础得打好。小编特意为大家整理了中考常考的英语语法点,希望能够帮到大家。

1. 代词做主语

A.主语是he, she, it, either, neither, each, one, the other, another, anything, anyone, something, someone, somebody, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody, no one, nothing等代词时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) Somebody is asking for you. 有人在找你。

(2) Everyone is here. 大家都来了。

(3) There is something wrong with my bike. 没有的单车有点毛病。

B.主语是I(除be 动词用am外) , you, we, they代词时,谓语动词用第三人称复数形式。如:

(1) I like to stay here with you. 我喜欢跟你在这儿。

(2) They are all soldiers. 他们都是战士。

(3) We play football after school. 我们放学后踢足球。

C.主语是:who, what, which, all, more, most, some, any, none, the rest, the remainder时,谓语动词的形式须依具体情况而定。如:

(1) Who’s the girl over there? 那边的那个女孩是谁?

(2) Who are the boys playing games there? 在那里做游戏的男孩子是哪些人?

(3) What’s this? 这是什么?

(4) What are those? 哪些是什么?

(5) Which is yours? 哪一个是你的?

(6) Which are children’s? 哪一些是孩子们的?

2. 名词做主语

A. 一般说来,不可数名词及可数名词的单数做主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) Water is necessary for living things. 水对于生物来说是必须的。

(2) The desk over there is Li Lei’s. 那边的那张课桌是李蕾的。

(3) The dog is a useful animal. 狗是一种有用的动物。

B. 表示总称意义的名词people (人们,人民), cattle, police,youth做主语时,谓语动词用第三人称复数形式。如:

(1) English people are fond of talking about weather. 英国人喜欢谈论天气。

(2) Cattle are farmers’friends. 牛是农民的朋友。

C. 主语是:public, board, family, class, team, group, crowd, audience, company, crew, committee, enemy, government, herd, jury, party等名词时,如果是作为整体的,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式;如果作为其中一个个的成员,谓语动词用第三人称复数形式。如:如:

(1) Our class is made up of fifty students. 我们班有五十个学生组成。

(2) Our class are working very hard. 我们班学习都很努力。

(3) His team is very strong. 他们队很强大。

(4) His team are talking with the coach. 他们队在跟教练谈话。

D. 主语是:时间、距离、价格、度量衡单位等名词或短语,即使是复数,谓语动词也只能用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) Three years passes quickly. 三年很快过去了。

(2) Two meters is not long enough. 两米不够长。

E. 主语是:news, politics, physics, plastics, mathematics等名词虽然以—s结尾,但谓语动词也只能用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) Physics is very interesting and useful. 物理既很有趣也很有用。

(2) Plastics is widely used in our daily life. 塑料在日常生活中被广泛地应用。

F. 主语若是书名,剧名、报刊、杂志名称或国家、单位名称时,即使名词是复数形式,谓语动词也只能用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) The Arabian Nights is very interesting. 《一千零一夜》很有趣。

(2) The New York Times is popular in America. 《纽约时报》在美国很受欢迎。

G. 在算式里,主语是数词时,谓语动词也只能用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) Three and five is eight. 三加五等于八。

(2) Twelve divided by six is two. 十二除以六等于二。

8) 主与是:clothes, compasses, goods, glasses, trousers, scissors, shoes, socks, gloves等名时,谓语动词用第三人称复数形式。如:

(1) The trousers are not expensive. 这条裤子不贵。

(2) Your socks are over there. 你的袜子在那边。

H. 主语是:a lot of, lots of, plenty,百分比of +名词时,谓语动词的形式须依照名词的数而确定。如:

(1) A lot of people have taken part in the activity. 很多人参加了这次活动。

(2) Lots of water is lost. 大量的水被流失了。

I. 主语是: kind of, type of, pair of, amount of, quantity of + 名词时,谓语动词的形式须依照kind, type, amount, pair, quantity的数而确定。如:

(1) This pair of trousers was made by Master Li. 这条裤子是李师傅做的。

(2) A large quantity of water in the sea has been polluted. 这个海里大量的水被污染了。

(3) Large quantities of rice have been destroyed in the flood. 大量的庄稼在洪水中被毁坏了。

J. 主语是:the number of + 名词的复数时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

The number of students in our class is seventy-eight. 我们班的学生数是七十八。

主语是:a number of + 名词复数时,谓语动词用第三人称复数形式。如:

A number of students of our school come from the countryside. 我们学校很多学生来自农村。

K. 主语是:the population时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) What is the population of your town? 你们镇的人口多少?

(2) The population of America is a little over two hundred million. 美国人口数大约是两亿多一点。

主语是:分数 + population时,谓语动词常用第三人称复数形式。如:

About eighty percent of the population in our country are farmers. 我们国家大约有百分之八十的人口是农民。

L. 主语是:means, works, sheep, fish, Japanese, Chinese等名词时,谓语动词的形式须依照它们在句中的意义来确定。如:

(1) Every means has been tried but we can’t save him. 每一种方法我们都是用过了,但是我们还是救不了他。

(2) All the means have been tried but we can’t save him. 所有的方法我们都是用过了,但是我们还是救不了他。

3. 两个或两个以上的名词连在一起做主语

(一) and, both...and 连接名词或代词做主语

A.谓语一般用复数形式。如:

(1) Li Lei and Liu Mei are both interested in English. 李蕾和魏方都对英语感兴趣。

(2) He and she are good friends. 他跟她是好朋友。

B.and 连接的两个成对的名词,如fork and knife, bread and butter;soda and water; coffee and water;aim and end;salt and water等,虽有and 连接,但仍表示单一的概念,谓语动词常用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) Where is your fork and knife? 你的刀叉在哪儿?

(2) Is the bread and butter enough for you two? 你们两人吃这一点面包和黄油够了吗?

C.and 连接的两个名词若是指同一个人, 即: and前的名词前有冠词,而and后面的名词前没有冠词。谓语动词常用第三人称单数形式。如:

I’m told that the monitor and League secretary is ill today. 我听说班长兼团支书今天病了。

D.and所连接的连个名词前分别有: every, each, no, many a等修饰时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

(1) Every boy and every girl enjoys themselves in the school. 在学校,每一个男孩和女孩都玩得挺开心。

(2) Many a teacher and many a student has spoken at the meeting. 在会上,很多老师和学生发了言。

(二) 主语是:连接词or, either…or…, neither…nor…, whether…or…, not…but…, not only…but also…等连接的名词或代词时,谓语动词的形式须跟与之最接近的名词或代词决定。如:

(1) Neither he nor you are to blame. 他和你都不应该受责备。

(2) Is neither he nor you to blame? 他和你都不应该受责备吗?

(三) 主语是:介词in, out of, with, except, besides, without, as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, but, along with, together with, like, including, in addition to等所连接的两个名词时,谓语动词的形式应与这些词前面的名词的数保持一致。如:

(1) At the meeting, one in four is against the decision. 会上由四分之一的人反对这一决议。

(2) The teacher with his students is discussing a question. 老师和学生们在讨论问题。

(四) one and a half + 名词复数做主语,即名词超过一,但不满二时,谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。如:

One and a half oranges is enough for the baby. 这个孩子有一个半桔子就够了。

D.定语从句中谓语动词的形式必须跟先行词的单、复数形式保持一致。如:

(1) The girl who is speaking on the stage is Zhang Li’s sister. 在台上讲话的那个女孩是张力的姐姐。

(2) The children that are playing games over there are from Hunan. 在那边做游戏的孩子们是湖南人。

注意:在“one of + 名词复数 + 定语从句”结构中,定语从句的谓语动词一般用第三人称复数形式,但当one前面有the, the very, the less, the only或形容词最高级修饰时,定语从句的谓语动词一般用第三人称单数形式,如:

(1) Li Lei is one of the students who are good at English. 李蕾是英语学得好的学生之一。

(2) Alice is the only one of the girls that is from America. 艾利斯是唯一的一个来美国的女孩。

E.there be结构中be动词的形式由紧接近be后面的名词的形式所决定。如:

(1) There is a teacher and seventy students in the classroom. 教室里有一个老师和七十个学生。

(2) There are seventy students and a teacher in the classroom. 教室里有七十个学生和一个老师。

F.在某些虚拟语气的句子中,无论主语是谁,be动词总是为were的形式。如:

(1) If I were a bird, I would fly in the sky freely. 要是我是一只鸟,我将自由自在地在天空飞翔。

(2) If he were here, I would talk to him face to face. 如果他在这里,我将面对面地跟他谈。

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