透析英语重难点语法:构词法

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:中考  
编辑点评: 英语在中考中所占的比重不小。想要取得高分,英语语法基础得打好。小编特意为大家整理了经常容易出错的英语语法点,希望能够帮到大家。

英语单词的构成方式主要有:合成法、转化法,派生法。此外还有截短法、混合法和首字母缩略法。

1.合成法:把两个或两相以上独立的词合成一个新词。

(1)合成名词

名词/代词+名词:spaceship宇宙飞船blood-test验血she-wolf母狼 classroom

名词+动词-ing形式:handwriting书法machine-building机器制造

名词+及物动词+er/or:pain-killer止痛药

形容词+名词:shorthand速记 highway公路

及物动词+名词:breakfast早餐pickpocket扒手

动词-ing形式+名词:flying-fish飞鱼waiting-room候车室sleeping-pill安眠药

副词+动词:outbreak爆发 output输出 downfall垮台 input

动词+副词:turn-off断开get-together联欢会;座谈会

介词/副词+名词:afternoon午后

(2)合成形容词

形容词/数词+名词+-ed:kind-hearted, cold-blooded冷血的one-eyed独眼的,three-legged

名词 +名词+-ed:potato-shaped马铃薯形状的

名词/代词+动词过去分词:hand-made, self-educated, radio-equipped,

名词/代词+形容:color-blind色盲的

形容词/数词+动词-ing形式:left-hand左撇子的

形容词+动词-ing形式:good-looking相貌好看的easy-going脾气随和的

副词+动词-ing形式:hard-working students勤劳的far-reaching深远的long-lasting耐用的

副词+形容词:ever-green trees常青树

形容词+形容词:light-blue浅蓝色的

动词+副词:see-through pool透明的

介词+名词:downhill下坡的uphill上山的

(3)合成动词

副词+动词:ill-treat虐待undergo经历overhear(无意)听见overthrow推翻

名词/代词+动词:water-ski滑水mass-produce大规模生产sleep-walk梦游

形容词+动词:blacklist列入黑名单white-wash粉刷safe-guard保卫

(4)合成副词

副词+副词:however但是moreover而且, therefore

代词+副词:anywhere任何地方whatever无论什么 somewhere, nowhere,everywhere

副词+名词:downstairs在楼下 upstairs, upward, downward,westward,eastward

形容词+名词:anyway无论如何

(5)合成代词 some, any, no可以与-thing, -one, -body合成代词。如:

anybody任何人something某事everything一切nobody没有人someone每个人

2.转换法:一种词类转化为另一种词类的词。

(1)动词转化为名词。如:

He visited the summer palace yesterday. 他昨天参观了颐和园。(动词)

we paid a visit to the scientist last week. 我们上星期拜拜访了那位科学家。(名词)

He likes a quiet smoke after supper. 他喜欢在晚饭后静静地抽了一会儿烟。(名词)

we stopped there for a swim. 我们在那儿停下来游了一会儿泳。

这类名词常与give, have, make, take等动词搭配形成一个短语,表示一个动作。如:

give a shout喊叫give a kick踢take a seat就座take a bath洗澡have a swim游泳

have a smoke吸烟make a bet打赌make a decision商定

又如:have a bath (chat, debate, discussion, dream, flight, interview, lie, look, quarrel, rest, ride, shave, smoke, talk, taste, try, walk, wash…)

make a call (demand, guess, jump, show, an advance, an attack, an attempt…)

(2)名词转化为动词。如:

We should shoulder these responsibilities. 我们应当担负起这些责任来。

The hall can seat two thousand people. 大厅能坐2000人。

He pinned great hopes on us. 他对我们寄托了很大希望。

They have booked their plane tickets. 他们已经定了飞机票。

(3)形容词转化为动词。如:

The train slowed down to half its speed. /the room gradually quieted down.

(4)形容词转化为副词。如:

How long is the line?(形容词)how long have you lived there?(副词)

(5)形容词转化为名词。如:the sick (病人) the beautiful (美好的事物) at the latest (最迟) at the most (至多)the true and the false (正确的与错误的) the french (法国人)

something has gone wrong with the machine. 机器出了点儿毛病。(形容词)

he didn’t know the difference between right and wrong. 他不知道对与错的区别。(名词)

3.派生法:词根(stems)加前缀(prefixes)和后缀(suffixes)构成新词。

①前缀

a-(形容词;副词):asleep,arise, awake, abroad(在国外),alone(独自)

co-(共同):co-exist, co-operate

over-(过于):overdo, oversimplify

anti-(反,防):anti-tank, anti-clockwise

re-(重复;再):return, redesign, reunite, remarry(再婚)

super-(超级,上层):superstar, superman, supermarket

sub-(下面的):subway, subconscious

tele-(远程):telephone, telegraph, telescope(望远镜)

bi-(双):bicycle, bimonthly, bilingual

mis-(误):mistake, misunderstand(误会)

inter-(相互;之间):international, interrelation

en-(使可能):encourage, enable(使成为可能)

dis-(否定):disappear, disagree, discourage, disappoint, dishonest,

in-/il-/im-/ir-(不;非):invisible(看不见的),illogical, illegal(非法的), impolite, impossible, irregular, irresponsible

un-/non-(不;非):unfit, unfair, unknown, non-conductor(非导体)

②名词后缀

-er(……者):foreigner, thinker, swimmer, traveller

-ese(……地方的人):chinese, portuguese, japanese

-ian(精通……的人;……地方的人):musician, magician, physician, technician, russian

-ist(专业人员):artist, specialist, pianist, physicist

-ment(性质;状态):government, movement, argument, engagement, development

-ion:expansion, discussion, decision

-dom:freedom, kingdom

-ance/ence:acceptance, allowance, dependence, confidence

-ee:employee, interviewee, trainee

-ness(性质;状态):business, happiness, greatness, illness, darkness

-or(器具;……者):cooker, tractor, actor, visitor, professor

-ship:friendship, leadership, hardship, scholarship

-tion(动作;过程;结果):pollution, suggestion, invention

③形容词后缀

-al:practical, continual, educational, national

-an:american, european, canadian, italian, australian

-ern:southern, northern, eastern

-ful:helpful, cheerful, grateful, useful, careful

-ary:revolutionary, secondary, imaginary

-ble:reasonable, horrible, comfortable, acceptable, terrible

-ish:foolish, childish, swedish, british, english

-ive:active, native, decisive, destructive, expensive

-y:rainy, dirty, sleepy, healthy

-less:careless, homeless, motherless, useless

-ant:important, significant, ignorant

-ous:serious, courageous, famous, continuous

-some:troublesome, tiresome, handsome, lonesome

④动词、副词和数词后缀

-fy(使……化):simplify,beautify, amplify, satisfy, electrify

-en(使……变得):strengthen, lengthen, widen

-ize(使……成为):realize (实现),modernize, apologize, organize

-ly(方式;程度):freely, badly, terribly, perfectly, truly, angrily

-wise:clockwise, otherwise, likewise

-ward(s)(方向):towards, backward, eastward, forward, outward

-teen(十):fourteen, fifteen, eighteen

-ty(整十位数):twenty, forty, thirty -th(序数词):twelfth, ninth, twentieth

4. 截短法: 将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变的英语构词法称为截短法,主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。

① 截头 telephone→phone airplane→plane

② 去尾 mathematics→maths examination→exam kilogram→kilo laboratory→lab taxicab→taxi

③ 截头去尾 influenza→flu refrigerator→fridge prescription→script

5. 混合法: 英语构词还可以将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词,前半部分表属性,后半部分表主体。这样的英语构词法就是混合法。

news broadcast→newscast新闻广播 television broadcast→telecast电视播送 smoke and fog→smog烟雾 photo and graphy→photography摄影,摄影术 helicopter airport→heliport直升飞机场

6. 首字母缩略法

BBC(british broadcasting corporation)英国广播公司;DIY (do it yourself)自己亲自做

NATO (north atlantic treaty organization)北约;SOS (save our ship)国际通用的呼救信号

UN(the united nations)联合国;USA (the united states of America)美国

VIP(very important person)重要人物;WTO(world trade organization)世界贸易组织
 

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