2016年必考英语语法——since从句的翻译问题

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:初三英语  
编辑点评: 距2016年中考越来越近,初三的孩子们也进入紧张的备考阶段。中考中英语占得比重很大,要想考好英语,英语语法一定得牢固掌握。小编特意为大家准备了2016年必考的英语语法,初三的孩子们一定要抽出时间看看背背。

谈谈since从句的翻译问题

一、正面翻译

在一般情况下,since用作连词表示“自从”时,它所引导从句的谓语通常应是非延续性动词。如:

He has grown an inch since I saw him. 我上次见到他以后他已长高了一英寸。

She has had another baby since I saw her last. 从上次我见到她以来,她又生了一个孩子。

We’ve been friends ever since we met at school. 自从我们在学校遇见以来一直是朋友。

He’s been in bed since he broke his leg. 自从他摔伤了腿,他一直躺在床上。

He has worked for us ever since he left school. 他离开学校以后就一直为我们工作。

He hasn’t stopped complaining since he got back from his holidays. 自从他休假回来,就不停地抱怨。

二、反面翻译

但有时也可以是延续性动词或状态动词,不过此时应注意:延续性动词或状态动词所表示的通常是动作或状态的完成或结束 (而不是其开始)。试体会下列句子及其相应的翻译:

I haven’t heard from him since he lived in Beijing. 自从他离开北京以来,我一直未收到他的信 (“住在北京”的结束,即“离开北京”)。

He has never come to see me since I was ill. 我病愈之后他还没来看过我 (“生病”的结束,即“病愈”)。

It has been so long since we were all together. 好久我们没有在一起团聚了。(“在一起”的结束就是“没有在一起”)

注意:

如果要表示从句中的动作或状态延续至今,就应该用持续性动词的现在完成时,而不是用一般过去时。如:

I haven’t seen you since I have been back. 我回来后一直未见到你。

I haven’t had a good meal (ever) since I’ve been here. 我自从来到这里后还没吃过一顿好的。

I haven’t seen you since I have been back. 我回来后就一直没见到你。

He has never been to see me since I have been ill. 我生病以来他从未来看过我。

Nothing has happened here since you’ve been away. 自你离开后,这里没有发生什么事。

I have met him often since I have lived here. 自从我在这里住下之后,我常看见他。

I have learned a lot from him since I have known him. 自从我认识了他,我向他学到许多东西。

This is the first storm since you’ve been here. 自从你来到这里,这才是第一场暴风雨哩。

三、值得注意的特例

有个别时候(尤其是用于since I was a child, since we were young之类的表达),持续性动词或状态动词的一般过去时也可以表示动作或状态持续到现在 (多半有ever修饰)。如:

I’ve known her ever since I was a child. 自孩提时代起我就已经认识她了。

We have known each other since we were children. 我们从小认识。

I have lived here since I was a child. 我从小就在这里住。

She’s been playing tennis since she was eight. 她从八岁起就打网球了。

Tom hasn’t been home since he was a boy. 汤姆从小离家就没回去过。

We have lived in England since I was a child. 从我小时起我们就住在英国。

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