《文法俱乐部》----第二十一章 简化从句练习

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:英语语法  
编辑点评: 《文法俱乐部》是台湾旋元佑的经典之作,作者是TIME中文解读版《解读时代杂志》的总主笔,当年以第一名考上台大外文研究所,分数几乎是第二名的2倍。 这本书在豆瓣上评分高达9.6分,很多读者表示读完此书对很多英语语法豁然开朗,希望小编的选择可以让你们的英语学习更轻松,更高效~中考将至,各位加油!

第二十一章 简化从句练习
  简化从句,亦即一般短语书所谓的非限定从句(Non-finite Clauses),是高度精简的句型,也是较具挑战性的句型,在TIME 中俯拾皆是。本书一连几章介绍这个比较庞大的概念,现在已到了验收的时候。这一章就用sentence combining的形态来练习如何精简复杂的句子。
首先回顾一下简化从句的两大原则:
  一、对等从句中,相对应位置(主语与主语,动词与动词等)如果重复,择
   一弹性省略。
二、从属从句(名词从句、形容词从句与副词从句)中,省略主语与be动
  词两部分,留下补语。不过主语若非重复或空洞的元素,就应设法保留,
  以免句意改变。

这两项原则的共同目的都是为了增强句子的精简性:尽量删除两个从句间重复或空洞的元素,但以不伤害清楚性为前提。现在就借一些例句的组合来练习如何写作高难度的句型。

例一
  1. The patient had not responded to the standard treatment.
  (病人对标准疗法没有反应。)
  2. This fact greatly puzzled the medical team.
(医疗小组对此深感不解。)

这两个简单句中,句2的主语this fact指的就是整个句1叙述的那件事。两句经由这个交叉建立了关系,可以考虑用关系从句 (即形容词从句)连结起来。亦即把句2的交叉点this fact改写为关系词,附于句1上作关系从句,成为:

  The patient had not responded to the standard treatment,which
greatly puzzled the medical team.(不够清楚)

  如此组合这两句话,短语上看来可以,但修辞上有严重的缺点:关系词which固然可以代表逗点前的整句话(表示病人缺乏反应这一点令人困惑),但是它也可以代表逗号前面的名词the standard treatment(表示标准治疗方式本身令人困惑)。如此一来,一个句子有两种可能的解释,犯了模棱两可(ambiguous)的毛病,也就是没有把意义表达清楚,不如尝试另一种组合方式。
既然整个句1是句2主语this fact的内容,不妨把它改成名词从句(前面加上连接词that即可),然后直接置于句2中this fact的位置当主语使用,成为复句:

That the patient had not responded to the standard treatment greatly puzzled the medical team.

  这个句子中的名词从句(that引导的从句)可再进一步简化,一般做法是删除主语与be动词。但这个从句中主语是the patient,在主要从句中并无重复,无法省略。动词had not responded其中也没有be动词可以省略,那么该怎么做?首先,动词简化的通用原则是:
  一、有 be 动词即省略 be 动词;
  二、有语气助动词(can,must,should等)则改为不定词(to V);
三、除此之外的动词一律加上 -ing 保留下来。

以had not responded这个动词短语而言,符合第三种情形,所以改写为not having responded,以取代原先的名词从句。原来的主语the patient改为所有格(the patient's)置于前面,再删除无意义的连接词that即完成了简化的动作,成为:

The patient's not having responded to the standard treatment greatly
puzzled the medical team.

  另外,也可以直接进行词类变化,把动词改写为名词后,成为:
The patient's failure to respond to the standard treatment greatly
puzzled the medical team.

这种讲法读起来会比上一种讲法更自然一点。

例二
  1. The summer tourists are all gone.
  (夏季的观光客都走光了。)
  2. The resort town has resumed its air of tranquillity.
(这个度假小镇又恢复了平静。)

这两句话之间没有重复的元素,但有逻辑关系存在:在观光客走了之后,或是因为观光客都走了,小镇才得以恢复平静。这时可以用副词从句的方式,选择恰当的连接词(after、because、now that等)附在句1前面,再把句1与句2并列即可:

Now that the summer tourists are all gone, the resort town has resumed
its air of tranquillity.

  Now that引导的副词从句若要进一步简化,关键在主语、动词两个部分。主语the summer tourists与主要从句并无重复,必须保留下来以免损害句意。动词部分有be动词(are),后面还有补语 (gone)。这时若去掉be动词,留下主语与补语,就破坏了这个副词从句的结构,可以省略连接词now that,成为:
(With) the summer tourists all gone, the resort town has resumed its
air of tranquillity.

  如果最前面没有加上with,而是以the summer tourists all gone直接代表一个简化的副词从句,这种讲法比较文诌诌,不够口语化。
较口语化的做法是,用介系词with来取代连接词now that的意义,而把the tourists放在with后面作它的宾语,all gone仍然作补语,即成为上句中多一个with在前面的句型。

例三
  1. Confucius must have written on pieces of bamboo.
  (孔子当年一定是在竹简上写字。)
  2. Confucius lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
  (孔子是东周时代的人。)
  3. Paper was not available until the Eastern Han Dynasty.
  (纸到东汉时期才有。)

这三句话中,句1和句2有一个交叉:Confucius。经由这个交叉点建立关系,可用关系从句的方式连结,将句2的Confucius改写为关系词who,成为:

(1+2) Confucius, who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have
   written on pieces of bamboo.

这个关系从句(who lived in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty)可以进行简化,省略重复的主语who,再把普通动词lived改写为living,即成为简化形容词从句:

Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on
pieces of bamboo.

东周时代的孔子为什么要用竹简写字?是因为句3:纸到东汉时期才有。句3的内容表示原因,所以用副词从句的方式——外加连接词because成为副词从句,与主要从句并列,即得到:

(+3)Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written
   on pieces of bamboo, because paper was not available until the
   Eastern Han Dynasty.

句中的副词从句(because之后的部分)如要进一步简化,又要观察主语与动词部分。主语paper没有重复,必须留下来。动词虽然是be动词,可是副词从句的简化中,一旦留下主语,就得有个分词配合(传统语法称为分词构句),所以使用be动词来制造分词being,并省略连接词because,即成为简化的副词从句:

Confucius, living in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, must have written on
pieces of bamboo, paper not being available until the Eastern Han
Dynasty.

例四
  1. The movable-type press was invented by Gutenberg.
  (古登堡发明活版印刷。)
  2. The movable-type press was introduced to England in 1485.
  (活版印刷在1485年引进英国。)
  3. This event marked the end of the Dark Ages there.
  (这件事标示英国黑暗时期的结束。)

这个例子中的句1和句2也有一个交叉:the movable-type press,可以将它改写为关系词which,以关系从句方式连接:

(1+2) The movable-type press, which was invented by Gutenberg, was
   introduced to England in 1485.

这个关系从句(which引导的部分)可以直接简化,省略主语 which和be动词was,只保留补语invented这个部分,即成为简化的形容词从句:

The movable-type press,invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to
England in 1485.

句3中的主语this event (这个事件)指的就是上面整句话的那个事件。这时候因为上面的句子比较长,可以先加个同位语an event,再用它和句3主语the event的交叉构成关系从句,成为:

(+3) The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced
   to England in 1485, an event which marked the end of the Dark
   Ages there.
要进一步简化这个句子,可以把重复部分an event 删除,再省略关系从句的主语which,把动词 marked 改成分词 marking:

The movable-type press, invented by Gutenberg, was introduced to
England in 1485, marking the end of the Dark Ages there.

例五
  1. Ben Kook was educated in an art college.
  (本·库克曾在一所美术学院念书。)
  2. Ben Kook acts unusual at times.
  (本·库克有时表现得与众不同。)
  3. Ben Kook deals with economic matters at these times.
  (这时本·库克处理经济事务。)

句1和句2之间有因果关系:因为在艺术学院读过书,所以才有与众不同的表现。那么就在句1前面加上连接词because成为副词从句,与句2的主要从句并列,成为:
(1+2) Because he was educated in an art college. Ben Kook acts unusual
   at times.

  这个句子中,简化because引导的副词从句,可以直接省略he was,再把连接词because删去,只保留补语educated部分,成为:
  Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual at times.
  这个句子要与句3连结,可以观察到句尾的at times就是句3 结尾部分的at these times。以这个交叉改写为关系词when,构成关系从句的形态:
(+3) Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual (at times) when
   he deals with economic matters.

句中括弧部分的at times是副词类,属于次要元素,又与后面的when重复,可以先行省略。进一步的简化做法仍是一样:把主语he省略,动词deals改成dealing。不过,由于原先的at times已经省略,所以与它重复的when不宜省略。把when留下来,即成为:

  Educated in an art college, Ben Kook acts unusual when dealing
  with economic matters.

例六
  1. I'd like something.
  (我希望一件事。)
  2. You will meet some people.
  (你去见见一些人。)
  3. Then you can leave.
  (然后你就可以走了。)
句1中的宾语something.就是整个句2叙述的那件事,所以在句2前面加上一个连接词that,成为名词从句,然后放入句1中 something的位置作为like的宾语:

(1+2) I'd like that you (will) meet some people.

附带提一下,1+2合并时,that从句的语气成为祈使句的语气,所以助动词will应省略成原形动词,但简化时仍变成不定词。以下的例子若看到助动词上加个括弧都是同样的原因。这里的名词从句要简化时,因主语you与主要从句并无重复,所以要留下来,把它放在like后面的宾语位置。简化从句的做法是把助动词简化为不定词to V,因为语气助动词 must、should、will(would)、can(could)、 may(might)等都可以改写成be + to的形式。省略be动词后就剩下to,所以上面这个从句中的will meet就改成to meet当补语用,成为:

I'd like you to meet some people.

  再把句3加上去。句3是表示时间,可以用连接词before把它改成副词从句:

(+3) I'd like you to meet some people before you (can) leave.

  这个副词从句若进一步简化,得把before留下才能表达 “在……之前”的意思。但before这个连接词也可当介系词用,一旦后面的从句简化了,它就成为介系词,只能接名词形态。因此把重复的主语you省略后,原来的动词leave要改成动名词leaving的形态,成为:

  I'd like you to meet some people before leaving.
例七
  1.I have not practiced very much.
  (我练习得不多。)
  2.I should have practiced very much.
  (我应该多练习。)
  3.I am worried about something.
  (我担心一件事。)
  4.I might forget something.
  (我可能忘记什么事。)
  5. What should I say during the speech contest?
(在演讲比赛中我该说些什么?)

  句1和句2可以用比较级as...as的连接词合成复句:
   (1+2) I have not practiced as much as I should (have practiced).

因为“练习不够”,才会造成句3 “我很担心”的结果。表示这种因果关系,可以使用because的副词从句来连接:

(+3)Because I have not practiced as much as I should, I am worried
   about something.
Because 引导的副词从句,简化时可把重复的主语I省略。动词部分have not practiced 因为没有be动词,也没有语气助动词,就只能加上-ing,成为not having practiced,再把连接词Because删去,成为:

  Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about
something.

这个句子中,“担心的事情” something,就是句4的内容“我可能会忘记什么事”。因为something是放在介系词about的后面,要连成复句的话可以先改成about the possibility,再把句4加上连接词that,形成名词从句,作为possibility的同位语,成为:

  (+4) Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried
    (about the possibility) that I might forget something.

这个句子中的介系词短语about the possibility意思和下文的 that从句重复,可以省略。但是如果要简化其后的that从句,就得把介系词about留下来,简化的结果才有地方安置。that从句的简化,省去重复的主语I之后,动词might forget的简化一般是改成不定词to forget。可是现在要放在介系词about后面,不能用不定词的形态,只能改成forgetting:

  Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about
forgetting something.

现在,这个句子中“担心会忘记的”那件something,就是句 5的问题:“演讲比赛该说什么?”只要将这个疑问句改成非疑问句,就是一个名词从句,可直接取代上句中的something,作为forget 的宾语:

(+5)Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about
  forgetting what I should say during the speech contest.

最后一步是简化what引导的名词从句。做法一样:省略主语I,动词should say改为不定词to say:

Not having practiced as much as I should, I am worried about forgetting
what to say during the speech contest.

例八
  1. A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then.
  (A.弗赖斯当时是学院足球队队长。)
  2. A. Fries is the director of a football club now.
  (A.弗赖斯现在是一家足球俱乐部的主管。)
  3. A. Fries saw something.
  (A.弗赖斯当时见到一件事。)
  4. The College football team lost in the important game.
  (学院足球队在重要的球赛中失利。)
  5. A. Fries offered something.
  (A.弗赖斯提议做一件事。)
  6. He would assume responsibility.
  (弗赖斯愿意负责。)
  7. He would tender his resignation.
(弗赖斯将提出辞呈。)

  这里一共有七个句子,要合并在一起,而且其中六个都得简化,只许留下一个完整的从句。这可能是个不小的挑战,请读者仔细观察如何逐步完成整个动作。
首先,句1和句2分别叙述A.弗赖斯当时与现在的身份。这两句在内容与句型上对仗工整,适合以对等从句方式表现,故加上对等连接词and来连接:

(1+2) A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then and
   he is the director of a football club now.

对等从句的简化方法是两从句间相对应位置如有重复,则省略一个。因此把and右边那个从句重复的he is去掉,成为:

  (A) A. Fries was the leader of the College football team then and the
    director of a football club now.

这个描述弗赖斯身份的句子,我们称作句A,先放着备用。下一步来组合3和4两句。句3中“弗赖斯见到”的something就是 整个句4的内容:“学院足球队比赛失利”。所以把句4冠上连接词 that成为名词从句,置于句3中取代something,作为saw的宾语:

(3+4)A. Fries saw that the College football team lost in the
   important game.

that引导的这个名词从句可以如此简化:主语the Callege football team改为所有格留下,动词lost直接改为名词的lost,成为:

  (B) A. Fries saw the College football team's loss in the important game.

  “弗赖斯眼见学院足球队失利。”这句话我们称作句B,也先放着暂时不用。
  接下来组合5和6两句。句5 “弗赖斯提出”的something,就是句6的“他要负起责任”。所以如法炮制把句6改成名词从句置入句5来取代something,成为:
(5+6) A. Fries offered that he (would) assume responsibility.

  这个句子可再将助动词简化为不定词to V的简化从句he be to assume,而be动词可再省略成为:
  A. Fries offered to assume responsibility.

现在就用这个句子来把前面整理的结果堆砌上去。先把句A 拿出来。句A内容是描述弗赖斯的职位,有补充形容A.弗赖斯身份的功能,所以拿它来做关系从句,将A. Fries改为关系词who,附于上句的主语A. Fries之后,成为:

(+A)A. Fries, who was the leader of the College football team then
   and the director of a football club now, offered to assume
   responsibility.

句中这个who引导的关系从句可以简化,省略主语who和be 动词was,留下名词类补语(一般所谓的同位语),成为:

  A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director
of a football club now,offered to assume responsibility.

“当时的学院足球队队长,现今一家足球俱乐部的主管弗赖斯,表示要负责。”为什么?因为句B: “他目睹学院足球队比赛失利。”现在把句B拿出来用,它和上句的关系是因果关系,所以加上连接词because,做成副词从句与上句并列:

(+B)Because he saw the College football team's loss in the important
   game, A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and
   the director of a football club now, offered to assume
   responsibility.

句子越来越长了,现在来简化一下。上句中because引导的副词从句,主语he和主要从句的A. Fries 重复,可以省略。动词saw 因无be动词与助动词,可直接改成seeing,再把多余的because去掉,成为:

Seeing the College football team's loss in the important game,
A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director
of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility.

别忘了,一直未动用到句7: “弗赖斯打算提出辞呈。”从内容来看,它是说明上句中“负责”(assume responsibility)的方式。也就是句7应拿来修饰上句中的原形动词assume—词。“以……方式” 的最佳表达是用by的介系词短语,所以把句7(He would tender his resignation.)直接放入by的后面,不过,by是介系词,后面只能接受名词短语,所以要将句7简化为名词短语的形态。省略主语 he,动词would tender 因为要放在介系词后面,只能改成动名词 tendering,成为:

(+7) Seeing the College football team's loss in the important game,
A. Fries, the leader of the College football team then and the director
of a football club now, offered to assume responsibility by tendering
his resignation.
(眼见学院足球队在重大的比赛中失利,当时的学院足球队队长,也就是现在
一家足球俱乐部的主管弗赖斯,表示要提出辞呈以示负责。)

  终于大功告成。读者经过这一番演练,当可了解上面这个句子实际上隐含多达七句话。然而经过简化的过程,删掉了一切多余的元素,最后的结果并不显得太长或太复杂,这就是简化从句的功效。
  如开场白中所述,简化从句是高难度句型,颇富挑战性。读者若看到这里都能大致了解,那么句型观念可说已相当完整,欠缺的只是大量的阅读功夫,那要靠日积月累的培养。有清晰的句型观念,再加上大量的阅读,日后自然能写出一手好文章。
下面再附上一篇练习,请读者先自行尝试组合、简化其中的句子,再比对附在后面的参考——只是参考,因为简化从句没有一定的做法,也没有标准答案。在告别句型之前,还有一个问题要处理:倒装句。下一章我们就来研究这个也很重要的问题。
 

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