初中英语语法大全:直接引语和间接引语

所属专题:2015年中考英语  来源:互联网    要点:初中英语语法大全  
编辑点评: 直接引语和间接引语:在陈述句中,直接引用说话人原来的语句,称为直接引语。在书写时,直接引语用引号。用自己的词语来转述表达原来说话人说的内容,称为间接引语。

3、直接引语变为间接引语时,指示代词以及表示时间和地点的词或词组应作相应变化

 

直接引语

间接引语

指示代词

this

 that

these

those

 

时间状语

now

then

today

that day

this morning(afternoon…)

that morning(afternoon…)

tonight

that night

yesterday

the day before

last night

the night before

the day before yesterday

two days before

the day after tomorrow

in two days

ago

before

tomorrow

the next (following) day

next week(year…)

the next week (year…)

地点状语

here

there

方向性动词

come

go     

bring

take

记忆方法:
直接引语祈使句,变成间接引语的“顺口溜”是:去掉引号要加to;ask order须记住,直接引语是否定式,not加在to前部。
对于人称变化,要求学生们记住的“顺口溜”是:第一人称看主语,第二人称看宾语,宾语若是不存在,活用代词I, me, my
直接引语是特殊疑问句,变成间接引语的“顺口溜”是:直接去引号,陈述莫忘掉,小心助动词,丢它最重要。
直接引语为一般疑问句,变成间接引语的“顺口溜”是:去掉引号加if,陈述语序要记住,时态人称和状语,小心变化别马虎。
直接引语为陈述句,变成间接引语的“顺口溜”是:去掉引号加that

 4.直接引语可以变为间接引语,直接引语主要四种类型变化

直接引语是陈述句时

 

 

间接引语用that来引导。主句一般位于

句首,其谓语动词通常是say, tell

think,repeat,answer,reply,explain

 declare, whisper等。实际是主句中含

宾语从句,一律必须跟一个宾格代词或表

示人的名词,再跟that从句。

1 “I’m leaving for Beijingthe day after tomorrow,” he said to his son.

他对他儿子说:我后天要去北京了。

He told his son that he was leaving forBeijingin two days.           

2The interpreter said, “Ladies and gentlemen, the foreign guests arrived here yesterday.”

译员说:女士们,先生们,外国客人昨天到了。

The interpreter told the ladies and gentlemen that the foreigners had arrived there the day before.

 

直接引语是疑问句时

 

 

要先将主句的saidtold改为asked

引语将疑问句语序改为陈述句语序,句

末用逗号。

 

 

一般疑问句时

要将问句改为由ifwhether引导的宾语从句

1“Are they all in favor of open policy?” the president said to me.

校长问我:他们都赞成开放政策吗?”(直接引语

The president asked me whether(if) they were all in favor of the open policy. (间接引语)

特殊疑问句时

就用原来的疑问词作连词来引导宾语从句

2. “Who will help me finish the job?” she asked.“谁愿意帮我完成这项工作?她问道。(直接引语为特殊疑问句)

She asked who would help her finish the job.( 间接引语疑问代词who引导)

 

选择疑问句时

须用whether(不用if)…or引导宾语从句。凡是疑问句的直接引语均不可用that来引导。

3“Will you stay at school or go home this summer vacation, Tom?” said the Mary.玛丽问:汤姆,今年暑假你留校还是回家?”(直接引语)

Mary asked Tom whether he would stay at school or went home that summer vacation. (间接引语)

直接引语是祈使句时

 

 

 

1.多用名词(代词)+不定式结构

即主语+asked(advised…)+sb.+(not) to do sth.”

2.谓语动词用asked, told, advised,

 ordered, begged, commanded, warned.

1“Copy down this sentence and keep it in mind, please.” said the old teacher.

  “把这个句子抄下来,并把它记住,那位老师说。(直接引语)

 The old teacher told us to copy down that sentence and keep it in mind. (间接引语)

2“Don’t do that again, boys.” Said the old man.

 “别再做那种事,男孩子们,那位长辈说。(直接引语)The old man advised the boys not to do that again. (间接引语)

有些表示提议,建议,要求,劝告的祈使句,尤其是Let引导的祈使句,改为间接引语时可用suggest, insist, offer等动词或“should+动词原形加以转述。如:

3“Let’s have a cup of milk.” said the young man. “我们饮杯牛奶吧!”这位年轻人说。(直接引语)

The young man suggested having a cup of milk. (间接引语)=The young man suggested that we should have a cup of milk. (间接引语)

 

直接引语是感叹句

 

可用whathow引导,也可用that引导。

“What a lovely day it is today!” said the visitor.“今天天气多好啊!”游客说。(直接引语)

The visitor said what a lovely day it was that day. (间接引语)

The visitor said that it was a lovely day that day. (间接引语)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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