新概念英语自学导读第二册:第47课

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课文详注 Further notes on the text

1.A public house which was recently bought by Mr. Ian Thompson is up for sale.伊恩·汤普森先生最近才买的一个小酒店现在又要卖出去。

(1)在英国英语中,public house指酒馆、酒店,口语中往往缩略为pub:

I had lunch at a village pub.
我在一家乡村小酒店吃了午饭。

(2)up for sale表示“供新概念”,up为形容词,含义为“已提出的”、“供……的”。

2.He told me that he could not go to sleep one night because he heard a strange noise coming from the bar.他告诉我有天夜里他怎么也睡不着,因为他听到酒吧里传来一阵奇怪的响声。

(1)从that一直到句尾都是told的直接宾语,其中because引导的原因状语从句说明为什么睡不着的原因。

(2)coming为现在分词,它引导的短语修饰noise,为宾语补足语。它也可以变为从句结构:a strange noise that came from the bar。在一些表示感觉的动词如see, hear, feel, watch, notice 等之后,往往用宾语+宾语补足语这个结构,其宾语补足语既可以是不定式(通常不加to),也可以是现在分词,两者在意义上区别不大,现在分词表示动作正在发生,不定式则表示动作发生了:

I heard someone knocking at the door.
我听到有人正敲门。

I heard you sing this song yesterday.
昨天我听到你唱这支歌。

(3)bar为酒吧或酒店中卖酒的柜台。

3.…they were on in the morning.……早晨灯都亮着。

on为形容词,表示“开着的”、“接通的”,其反义词为off:

When he arrived home, he found that all the lights were on/ off.
他到家时发现所有的灯都亮着/关着。

Is the TV on? I thought I had turned it off.
电视机是开着的吗?我以为我把它关掉了。

4.He also said that he had found five empty whisky bottles which the ghost must have drunk the night before.他还说他发现了5只空的威士忌酒瓶子,这肯定是鬼魂头天晚上喝的。

(1)由于是对已发生的事表示推测,因此must后面要用完成时。

(2)that引导的为间接引语,因此时间状语要变动。直接引语中的时间状语为 last night,转述时变成了 the night before。其他时间状语的变化有:now→then, two days ago→two days before/ earlier, today→that day, tonight→that night, tomorrow→the next/ following day, last night→the night before等。

5.…they will not accept the pub even if he gives it away.……即使他把小酒店白送人,他们也不要。

(1)连词 even if表示“即使”,它引导的让步状语从句含有很强的假定性:

I won't have dinner with him even if he pays for it.
即使是他付钱我也不和他一起吃饭。

(2)give away是个固定短语,其含义之一是“赠送”、“免费给予”:

He gave all his books away to the library.
他把他所有的书都赠给了图书馆。

语法 Grammar in use

复习第36~45课部分语法

在第36~45课的语法中,我们学习了用 going to表示意图、打算或不久即将发生的事;学习了用将来完成时表示到将来某一时刻已经完成的动作;学习了与过去完成时经常连用的连词no
sooner…than, hardly… when以及 before;学习了间接疑问句、第2类条件句;学习了表示“必要”、“不必要”的情态助动词must, have (got) to和need;学习了 have+名词代替普通动词,can与 be able to的区别和过去完成时中的被动语态。注意以下句子:

Are you going to visit Old Delhi?
你打算去旧德里旅游吗?

I would if I could, but I can't afford it.
如果可能我会去的,但我花不起这笔钱。(第2类条件句)

Did you speak to the manager?
你和经理谈话了吗?

He didn't come, so I didn't have to speak to him after all.
他没来,所以我终究没有必要和他谈。( have to用于过去时表示必要)

I've called a taxi.
我叫了一辆出租车。

You needn't have done that! I'd already called one.
你其实用不着叫!我已叫了一辆了。(need表示必要)

He had no sooner returned than he bought a house.
他刚一回来便买下了一幢房子。(no sooner…than用于过去完成时)

By the end of next year, they will have finished work on the new stadium.
到明年年底,他们将把新体育场建成。(将来完成时,by引导的时间状语常与它连用)

He asked if/ whether Mr. Gilbert' s operation had been successful.
他问吉尔伯特先生的手术是否成功。(间接疑问句)

We had a long walk through one of the markets of Old Delhi.
我们穿过旧德里的一个市场时走了很长一段路。(had a walk = walked)

The plane was then able to rise.
于是飞机可以上升了。(表示成功地完成过去某一动作时只能用 be able to,不用 could)

The wallet had been wrapped up in newspaper and it contained half the money he had lost.
包是用报纸包着的,里面有他丢失的钱的一半。(过去完成时中的被动语态)

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