新概念英语第二册语法讲解:冠词

所属专题:新概念英语第二册语法讲解  来源:互联网    要点:新概念英语第二册  
编辑点评: 学习每一种语言,最先接触的就是字母和单词啦,可见单词是语言的血液和根基哦。单词又可以大至分成名词、动词、形容词、副词、量词、冠词等,那么今天我们就来学习冠词吧!

 

冠词是一种虚词,放在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义。冠词分不定冠词(The Indefinite Article)和定冠词(The definite Article)两种。a (an) 是不定冠词,a用在辅音之前:如a book, a man; an用在元音之前,如:an old man, an hour, an interesting book等。the是定冠词。

一、不定冠词的用法

1、指人或事物的某一种类(泛指)。这是不定冠词a (an)的基本用法。如:She is a girl. I am a teacher. Please pass me an apple.

2、指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。如:He borrowed a story-book from the library.
A Wang is looking for you. 一位姓王的同志正在找你。

3、表示数量,有“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈。如:
I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes.

4、用于某些固定词组中。如:a bit, a few, a little, a lot of, a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a pile of, a pair of, have a good time, for a while, for a long time等。

5、用在抽象名词前,表具体的介绍——a + 抽象名词,起具体化的作用。如:
This little girl is a joy to her parents. 这女孩对她父母来说是一个乐趣。
It is a pleasure to talk with you. 跟您交谈真是一件愉快的事情。
It is an honour to me to attend the meeting. 参加这个会,对我来说是一种荣誉。

二、定冠词的用法:

1、特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。这是定冠词the的基本用法。如:
Beijing is the capital of China.
The pen on the desk is mine.

2、指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。如:
Where is the teacher?
Open the window, please.

3、指上文提过的人或事物(第二次出现)。如:
There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms.
The baby was thin.

4、用在世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the earth, the moon, the sun。

5、用在序数词和形容词最高级前。(副词最高级前的定冠词可省略)如:
He is always the first to come to school.
Bob is the tallest in his class.

6、用在某些专有名词前(由普通名词构成的专用名词)。如:the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Science Museum, the Children’s Palace, the Party等。

7、用在一些习惯用语中。如:on the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next year, by the way等。

8、用在江河湖海、山脉前。如:the Yellow River, the Pacific Ocean, the Alps, the Himalayas

9、用在报刊、杂志前。如:the People’s Daily, the Evening Paper, the Times 泰晤士报

10、表示某一家人要加定冠词。如:
The Browns are at home to receive visitors today. 布朗一家今天要接待客人。

11、用在形容词前,表某一类人。如:the poor, the wounded, the living, the dead, the rich, the sick等。

12、定冠词可以表示一事物内部的某处。如:
The driver always sits in the front of the bus(car).

三、零冠词(即不用冠词):

1、专用名词和不可数名词前。如:China, America, Grade One, Class Two, milk, oil, water, paper, science等。

2、名词前已有作定语用的this, that, my, your, some, any等代词。如:
Go down this street.

3、复数名词表示一类人或事物时。如:
We are students. I like reading stories.

4、节日、日期、月份、季节前。如:Teachers’ Day, Children’s Day, National Day, in summer, in July等。
Today is New Year’s Day. It is Sunday. March 8 is Women’s Day.

5、在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前,尤其作表语、宾补时。如:
What’s the matter, Granny? We elected him monitor.

6、在某些习惯用语中的名词前。如:at noon, at night, at first, at last, at most, at least, by bus(train, air, sea), in bed, in time, in front of, go to school, go to bed, go to college, on foot, at table, in ink, in pencil等。

7、在三餐饭和球类运动前。如:
She goes to school after breakfast every morning.
We are going to play football.
We usually have lunch at school.

8、科目前不加。如:
We learn Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects.

【专项训练】

1、We can’t live without ______ air.
A.an B.× C.the D.some

2、——Have you seen ______ pen? I left it here this morning.
——Is it ______ black one? I think I saw it somewhere.
A.a; the B.the; the C.the; a D.a; a

3、I’ve been waiting for him for ______ hour and ______ half.
A.×; × B.the; a C.a; the D.an; a

4、What ______ fine weather we have today!
A.a B.× C.some D.an

5、Have you ever seen ______ as tall as this one?
A.a tree B.such tree C.an tree D.tree

6、Children usually go to ______ school at ______ age of six.
A.×; the B.a; an C.the; × D.the; the

7、______ Himalayas is ______ highest mountain in ______ world.
A.×; the;× B.The; the; the C.A; a; a D.×;×;×

8、They each have ______ book. Li Hua’s is about ______ writer. Wang Lin’s is on ______ science.
A.a; a; × B.the; ×; the C.×; the; × D.a; the; a

9、______ Physics is ______ science of matter and energy.
A.The; × B.×; × C.×; the D.A; a

10、______ sun rises in ______ east and sets in ______ west.
A.A; an; a B.The;×;× C.The; the; the D.A; the; a

(后设答案,大家不要偷看哦~(*^__^*) 嘻嘻……)

KEYS

1、B air是不可数名词。
2、D 此题为97年高考题。根据句意,第一空是泛指,第一次出现;第二空仍是泛指,且表数量“-”。
3、D 元音前用an。
4、B weather是不可数名词。
5、A 此题为85年高考题。泛指。
6、A go to school是固定短语。
7、B 山脉、形容词最高级及世界上的唯一的名词前加定冠词。
8、A 第一、二空泛指,第三空,science是不可数名词。
9、C 第一空,科目前不加冠词;第二空特指,有定语。
10、C

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