中考英语专题复习资料:短语动词和句型的讲解和训练

所属专题:中考英语复习资料  来源:沪江中学学科网    要点:中考英语复习资料  
编辑点评: 在中考英语中,我们需要复习的内容很多,因此我们一定要跟上老师的复习步骤,平时利用课余时间针对自己的薄弱环节进行加强。本文对初中阶段遇到的短语动词和句型进行了系统的知识讲解并有训练题供大家练习。

【考点直击】
1. 短语动词的辨析;
2. 英语句子的基本句型结构;
3. 初中阶段主要句型的用法。
【名师点睛】
短语动词是中考的重要内容之一。在初中阶段,我们已经学习了不少短语
动词,把他们加以归纳总结,进行重点复习是十分必要的。英语中有许多短语动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有的相当于不及物动词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。
1. 短语动词的分类
(1)动词+介词
常见的有look for, look after, ask for, laugh at, hear of 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后。如:
Don’t laugh at others.
Tom asked his parents for a bike.
(2)动词+副词
常见的有give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in,等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如:
You’ll hand in your homework tomorrow.
Please don’t forget to hand it in.
(3)动词+副词+介词
常见的有 go on with, catch up with等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:
Go on and I’ll catch up with you in five minutes.
After a short rest, he went on with his research work.
(4)动词+名词+介词
常见的有take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:
You should pay attention to your handwriting.
We should make full use of our time.
(5)动词+形容词
常见的有leave open, set free, cut open等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如:
The prisoners were set free.
He cut it open.
(6)动词+名词
常见的有take place, make friends等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。如:
This story took place three years ago.
I make friends with a lot of people.
2. 短语动词的辨析
(1)be made in(在……生产或制造),be made of(由……组成或构成)
(2)come down(下来;落),come along(来;随同),come to oneself(苏醒),come true(实现),come out(花开;发芽;出现;出来),come over(过来;顺便来访),come in(进来),come on(来吧;跟着来;赶快), come up with(找到;提出)
(3)do one’s best(尽最大努力), do well in(在……干得好), do one’s homework(做作业),do some reading(阅读)
(4)fall asleep(入睡),fall behind(落在…..后面),fall off(从……掉下),fall down(到下;跌倒)
(5)get down(下来;落下),get on(上车),get to(到达),get up(起床),get back(回来;取回),get off(下来),get on well with(与……相处融洽),get married(结婚),get together(相聚)
(6)give up(放弃),give…a hand(给与……帮助),give a concert(开音乐会)
(7)go back(回去),go on(继续),go home(回家),go to bed(睡觉),go over(过一遍;仔细检查),go out(外出;到外面),go wrong(走错路),go on doing(继续做某事),go shopping(买东西),go boating(去划船), go fishing(去钓鱼),go hiking(去徒步旅行),go skating(去滑冰),go straight along(沿着……一直往前走)
(8)have a look(看一看), have a seat(坐下), have supper(吃晚餐), have a rest(休息), have sports(进行体育活动), have a cold(感冒), have a cough(咳嗽), have a good time(过得愉快), have a headache(头痛),have a try(尝
试;努力)
(9)look for(寻找),look out(留神; 注意),look over(仔细检查),look up(向上看;抬头看),look after(照顾; 照看),look at(看; 观看),look like(看起来像),look the same(看起来像),
(10)make friends(交朋友),make phone calls(打电话),make money(赚钱),make the bed(整理床铺),make a noise(吵闹),make a faces(做鬼脸),make one’s way to(往……走去),make room for(给……腾出地方),make a decision(做出决定),make a mistake(犯错误),make up one’s mind(下决心)
(11)put on(上演;穿上;戴上),put up(挂起;举起),put down(把某物放下来),put away(把某物收起来), put off(推迟)
(12)take off(脱掉衣服),take photos(照相),take time(花费时间),take out(取出),take a seat(坐下),take an active part in(积极参加),take care of(照顾;照料;注意),take exercise(做运动),take one’s place(坐某人的位置;代替某人的职务),take turn(轮流)
(13)talk about(谈话;交谈),talk with(和……交谈)
(14)turn on(打开电灯,收音机,煤气,自来水等),turn off(关上电灯,收音机,煤气,自来水等),turn down(关小;调低),turn…over(把…..翻过来)
(15)think of(认为;想起),think about(考虑)
3.句子的基本句型结构
根据句子所用动词的不同,句子可归纳为五个基本句型。
(1)主语+连系动词+表语。例如:
My mother is a doctor.
Her voice sounds nice.
(2)主语+不及物动词。例如:
He runs fast.
We study hard.
(3)主语+及物动词+宾语。例如:
Children often sing this song.
He studies English.
1)常用-ing形式, 而不用不定式作宾语的动词有:enjoy, finish, feel like, consider, practise, keep, suggest, mind等。例如:
She enjoys reading novels and swimming.
I finished reading the book last night.
2)常用不定式,而不用-ing形式作宾语的动词有:wish, hope, agree, plan, decide, refuse等。例如:
Where do wish to sit?
Tom agreed to lend some money.
3)有些及物动词既可用不定式,由可用-ing形式作宾语,但意义不同。这类动词常见的有:remember, forget等。例如:
Please remember to post the letter for me.
请记住替我发了这封信。
I remember posting the letter.
我记得那封信寄过了。

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