中考英语专题复习资料:阅读理解讲解和训练

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编辑点评: 在中考英语中,我们需要复习的内容很多,因此我们一定要跟上老师的复习步骤,平时利用课余时间针对自己的薄弱环节进行加强。本文对中考中常见题型阅读理解的解题技巧和方法进行了详细介绍,供同学们参考。

【考点扫描】
阅读理解能力的培养是中学英语学习的一项重要任务,也是中考的一项重要内容。中考阅读理解题主要考查学生的语篇阅读能力、分析和判断能力。要求学生能较快地通过阅读理解短文大意,获取其中的主要信息,能做出正确判断,然后根据试题的要求从A, B, C, D四个选项中选出最佳答案或做出正误判断。文章的难易程度和初三课文基本相同,要求阅读速度为每分钟40-50个词。
中考阅读理解的阅读材料的选取一般遵循三个原则:
1. 阅读文章不少于三篇,阅读量在1,000单词左右;
2. 题材广泛,包括科普,社会,文化,政治,经济等;
3. 体裁多样,包阔记叙文,说明文,应用文等。
中考阅读理解考查的主要内容是:
1. 考查掌握所读材料的主旨和大意的能力。
此类考查主旨和大意的题大多数针对段落(或短文)的主题,主题思想,标题或目的,其主要提问方式是:
(1) Which is the best title of the passage?
(2) Which of the following is this passage about?
(3) In this passage the writer tries to tell us that______.
(4) The passage tells us that______.
(5) This passage mainly talks about_______.
2. 考查把握文章的事实和细节的能力。
此类考查事实和细节的题目大多数是针对文章的细节设计的,其主要提问方式是:
(1) Which of the following is right?
(2) Which of the following is not mentioned?
(3) Which of the following is Not True in the passage?
(4) Choose the right order of this passage.
(5) From this passage we know ________.
3. 考查根据上下文猜测生词的含义的能力。
此类猜测词义的题目要求考生根据上下文确定某一特定的词或短语的准确含义。其主要提问方式是:
(1) The word “  ” in the passage probably means ________.
(2) The underlined word “It” in the passage refers to _______.
(3) In this story the underlined word “   ” means ________.
(4) Here “it” means________.
4. 考查对阅读材料全篇的逻辑关系的理解,对文章各段,各句之间的逻辑关系的理解能力。
此类题目主要考查的是句语句之间,短语短之间的逻辑关系,其主要提问方式是:
(1) Many visitors come to the writer’s city to ________.
(2) Some shops can be built Donfeng Square so that they may _____.
(3) Air pollution is the most serious kind of pollution because _____.
(4) Why did the writer get off the train two stops before Vienna station?
5. 考查依据短文内容和考生应有的常识进行推理和判断的能力。
此类题目文章中没有明确的答案,需要考生再理解全文的基础上进行推理和判断。其主要提问方式是:
(1) We can guess the writer of the letter may be a ______.
(2) We can infer from the text that _______.
(3) From the letters we’ve learned that it’s very _____ to know something about American social customs.
(4) From the story we can guess ______.
(5) What would be happy if …?
6. 考查推断作者意图和态度的能力。
(1) How did the writer feel at Vienna station?
(2) The writer writes this text to ______.
(3) The writer believes that ______.
(4) The writer suggests that ______.
【名师解难】
明确了阅读理解题的考查要点以后,我们现在来研究破解阅读理解题的方法和技巧。
1.如何获取段落的主旨和大意?
最有效的办法是找出主题句。一篇文章(或一段文章)通常都是围绕一个中心意思展开的。而这个中心意思往往由一个句子来概括。这个能概括文章或段落中心意思的句子叫做主题句。因此,理解一个段落或一篇文章的中心意思首先要学会寻找主题句。主题句一般具有三个特点:
(1)表述的意思比较概括,相对其主句来看,这种概括性更为明显。
(2)句子结构较简单,多数都不采用长、难句的形式。
(3)段落中其它的句子必定是用来解释、支撑或发展主题句所表述的主题思想。
在一篇短文或一个段落中,大部分主题句的情况有三种:
(1)主题句在段首或篇首。
主题句在段首或篇首的情况相当普遍。一般新闻报道、说明文, 议论文大都采用先总述,后分述的叙事方法。例如:2003年陕西省英语中考试题阅读材料B的第一段:
All living things on the earth need other living things to live. Nothing lives alone. Most animals must live in a group, and even a plant grows close together with others of the same kind. Sometimes one living thing kills another, one eats and the other is eaten. Each kind of life eats another kind of life in order to live, and together they form a food chain(食物链)。Some food chains become broken up if one of the links disappears.
第一句即是主题句。这个句子概括了本段的中心意思,“地球上所有的生物要生存都离不开其它的生物”。后面讲述了大量的事实,“大部分动物必须成群的生活,甚至一种植物也要和其它同类的植物靠在一起生长。有时一种生物杀死另一种生物,一种生物吃另一种生物,而另一种生物被吃”。在列举了大量的事实之后,作者指出:如果这些食物链中的一个链环消失,所有的食物都会断掉。所有这些事实都是围绕第一个句子展开的。
在这篇短文之后有一道考查主题的阅读理解题:
59. Which of the following do you think is the best title for this passage?
A. Animals  B. Plants  C. Food Chains  D. Living Things
根据主题句的意思,我们可以很容易判断:这篇短文最好的标题是Food Chains。
(2)主题句在段末或篇末。
用归纳法写文章时,往往表述细节的句子在前,概述性的句子在后,并以此结尾。这种位于段末或篇末的主题句往往是对前面细节的总结,归纳或结论。例如2002年陕西省中考试题阅读材料A的最后一段:
If you buy some well-made clothes, you can save money because they can last longer. They look good even after they have been washed many times. Sometimes some clothes cost more money, but it does not mean that they are always better made, or they always fit better. In other words, some less expensive clothes look and fit better than more expensive clothes.
这段文章前面列举了两件事实:如果你买一些制作优良的衣服,你会省钱,因为这些衣服能穿得时间长一些。即使他们洗了很多次,仍然看起来很好。有时有些衣服花得前更多,但并不意味着这些衣服做得更好。最后一句话是对这两个事实的概括:有些价钱便宜的衣服比价钱贵的衣服更好看,更合身。段末这个句子就是主题句。
(3)无主题句
有时,一篇文章里并没有明显的主题句。这时我们应该怎样来确定文章的主题或中心意思呢?其实这也不难。我们可以首先找出每一段的中心意思,各段的中心意思往往都是围绕一个中心来展开的,或者说是来说明一个问题的。这个中心或这个问题就是这篇文章的主题或中心意思。
请看2004年江西省中考试题阅读理解A:
Killer bees started in Brazil 1957. A scientist in Sao Paulo wanted bees to make
more honey(蜂蜜). So he put forty-six African bees with some Brazilian bees. The bees bred(繁殖) and made a new kind of bees. But the new bees were a mistake. They didn’t want to make more honey. They wanted to attack. Then, by accident, twenty-six African bees escaped and bred with the Brazilian bees outside.
Scientists could not control(控制) the problem. The bees increased fast. They went from Brazil to Venezuela. Then they went to Central America. Now they are in North America. They travel about 390 miles a year. Each group of bees grows four times a year. This means one million new groups every five years.
Why are people afraid of killer bees? People are afraid for two reasons. First, the bees sting(叮) many more times than usual bees. Killer bees can sting sixty times a minute nonstop for two hours. Second, killer bees attack in groups. Four hundred bee stings can kill a person.
Already several hundred people are dead. Now killer bees are in Texas. In a few years they will reach all over the United States. People can do nothing but wait.
这篇短文表面看起来没有主题句,那末怎样来确定它的中心意思呢?按照上面的说明,我们先找出每一段的大意:第一段讲的是“killer bees”的产生。第二段讲的是“killer bees” 的急剧增加。第三段讲的是人们害怕“killer bees”的原因。第四段讲的是“killer bees”已经杀死的人数和将来的状况。从这几段的大意可以看出这篇文章自始至终都是围绕“killer bees”这一中心展开的。换句话说,“killer bees”就是这篇文章的主题。
在这篇短文的后面就出了一道这样的阅读理解题:
59. The best title of the passage is ____________.
A. How to make more honey     B. Killer bees
C. A foolish scientist            D. How to feed killer bees
毫无疑问,答案应该是:B。
2.如何根据上下文猜测词义?
猜测词义也是一种英语阅读能力。英语阅读理解试题中有不少这样的题目。
任何一个实词,只有在一定的上下文中才能表示一个确定的词义。所谓上下文(context),正如英语辞典所解释的,其作用就是帮助确定上下文中的词、短语或句子的意义。据此,我们可以尽可能地利用上下文来猜测词义,即从已知推求未知,也就是用我们所熟悉的词或短语来猜测我们不熟悉的词的词义。猜测词义时,我们可以从三个方面来考虑:1)根据上下文已知部分进行逻辑上的推理。2)运用语法知识进行语法分析。3)依靠常识和经验做出判断。根据上下文猜测词义的方法有下列几种:
(1)根据定义或解释猜测词义。例如:甘肃省2002年中考英语试题阅读材料B:
A bag is useful and the word “bag” is useful. It gives us some interesting phrases(短语). One is “ to let the cat out of the bag.” It is the same as “to tell a secret”….
Now when someone lets out (泄漏)a secret, he “lets the cat out of the bag.”
短文后面有一个理解题目:
John “lets the cat out of the bag” means he ________.
A. makes everyone know a secret
B. the woman bout a cat
C. buys a cat in the bag
D. sells the cat in the bag
在这篇文章里,“let the cat out of the bag”虽然是一个新出现的短语,但紧接着后面就给出解释It is the same as “to tell a secret.根据这一解释,我们就可判断出正确答案应为A。
(2)根据情景和逻辑进行判断。例如:2004年北京市海淀区中考试题阅读材料A。其中第三段是这样的:
As they go around town, the police help people. Sometimes they find lost children. They take the children home. If the police see a fight, they put an end to it right away. Sometimes people will ask the police how to get to a place in town. The police can always tell the people which way to go. They know all the streets and roads well.
文章后面有这样一道题:
53. In the text, “put an end to” means “___________”.
A. stop  B. cut  C. kill  D. fly
根据文章所提供的情景,如果警察看到有人在打架,他们肯定会去制止。因为制止打架斗殴是警察的职责。根据这一推理,答案应该是A。
(3)根据并列、同位关系猜测词义。例如:福州市2004年中考英语试题的阅读材料B。
There is a place on our earth where hot water and steam come up under the ground. It is on a large island in the Pacific Ocean. The island is North Island in New Zealand.
101. What does the word “steam” mean in Chinese?
A. 自来水B. 大气C. 冰川D. 蒸汽
从语法上看,steam和hot water是并列关系,我们就以断定这两种东西是相关的,是同一类第物质。在所给第四个选项中只有“蒸汽”有这种可能。
(4)根据背景和常识判断。请看2004年北京市海淀区中考试题的阅读材料C:
Watching some children trying to catch butterflies one August afternoon, I was reminded of an incident in my own childhood. When I was a boy of twelve in South Carolina, something happened to me that made me never put any wild creature (living thing) in a cage(笼子).
We lived on the edge of a forest, and every evening at dusk the mockingbirds would come and rest in the trees and sing. There isnt a musical instrument made by man that can produce a more beautiful sound than the song of the mockingbird.
I decided that I would catch a young bird and keep it in a cage and in that way, I would have my own private musician.
I finally succeeded in catching one and put it in a cage. At first, being scared, the bird fluttered(扑腾) about the cage, but finally it settled down in its new home. I felt very pleased with myself and looked forward to some beautiful singing from my little musician.
On the second day of the bird’s captivity, my new pet’s mother flew to the cage with food in her mouth. The baby bird ate everything she brought to it. I was pleased to see this. Certainly the mother knew better than I how to feed her baby.
The following morning when I went to see how my captive (caged) bird was doing, I discovered it on the floor of the cage, dead. I was terribly surprised! What had happened! I had taken extremely care of my little bird, or so I thought.
Arthur Wayne, the famous ornithologist, who happened to be visiting my father at the time, hearing me crying over the death of my bird, explained what had happened. “A mother mockingbird, finding her young in a cage, will sometimes bring it poison berries(毒莓). She thinks it better for her young to die than to live in captivity.”
Never since then have I caught any living creature and put it in a cage. All living creatures have a right to live free.
60. An ornithologist is probably a person who ____________ . 
A. studies birds
B. loves creatures
C. majors in habits
D. takes care of trees
Ornithologist 这个词从来没有见到过,但是通过他的语言我们可以判断出这是一个对鸟很有研究的人。我很爱鸟,把鸟装在笼子里,并细心照料,而且鸟的母亲也飞过来喂这只鸟,但这只鸟却死了,我很不理解。到我家来的这个人给我详细解释了鸟死的原因,说明这个人非常懂鸟。据此,我们可以断定答案影视A。
除了前面提到的方法以外,还有下面一些方法:
(5)根据同义、反义关系猜测词义。
(6)根据因果关系猜测词义。
3.如何确定细节和事实?
在阅读理解题目中,有相当一部分是考查细节和事实的题目。这类题目相对容易一些。这些题目有两个共同特点:(1)凡属针对特定细节的考题,其正确答案大都可以在阅读材料中找到对应的文字部分作为验证。这一部分可能是一个词或短语,也可能是一个句子或相关的若干句子,但句式、用词和表达方式不同。(2)干扰项往往是主体思想与细节混杂,正确答案细节和非正确答案的细节混杂,甚至真假混杂。因此,要做好阅读理解中的确定细节和事实的题目,一要在文章中找出相应的信息点,二要排除干扰项。请看2003年陕西省中考英语试题阅读理解题第48小题:
What do plants make food from? They make food from _______.
A. sunlight, water and things in the soil and air
B. water, sunlight and things in the soil
C. water and things in the soil and air
D. water, sunlight and things in the soil
这一小题考查的就是文章的细节和事实。这一细节和事实的表述在文章中可以直接找到:Plants are “factories”. They make food from sunlight, water and things in the soil and air.

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