中考英语语法汇总:代词语法讲解

所属专题:初中英语语法知识  来源:新东方    要点:中考英语备考  
编辑点评: 备战中考的学子们,还在为英语语法而苦恼吗?为了更好地帮助大家系统地巩固语法知识,本文对中考中常出现的代词语法考点进行了梳理,欲善其事,先利其器,相信掌握了它们,中考过关不在话下。

(一)代词概述

代词用来代替名词,在句中充当主语、宾语和表语,有时还可以充当定语。代词在考试命题中主要是代词格的变化、代词单复数形式以及不定代词和it的用法等。

(二)基本知识梳理

1. 人称代词:主格作主语,宾格用作及物动词和介词的宾语。

He often helps me.
Who is at the door? It's me.
The bicycle belongs to Tom and me.
出现并列主语或宾语时,其排列顺序为:单数时是第二、第三、第一人称(简称231)即you,he and I或you,her and me;复数时是第一、第二、第三人称(简称123)即we,you and they或us,you and them。

2. 物主代词:形容词性物主代词作定语,后加名词;而名词性物主代词等于形容词性物主代词加名词。如: This is my book. = This book is mine.
名词性物主代词可做主语、宾语和表语。如:
Your pen is blue.    Mine is blue,too.
May I use your pen?    I've lost mine.
She is a classmate of his.
The bike is hers.

3. 反身代词:用作宾语和起强调作用。

1)作宾语
Help yourself to some cakes.
I can look at myself in the mirror.
They should think more of the public health than themselves.

2)作强调
We do homework by ourselves.
I myself go to the airport to meet my uncle.

4. 指示代词

1)this,that,these,those
What's this(that)?    It's a book.
What are these(those)?    They are books.
this和these比较靠近,that和those稍远一点。

2)it的用法
(1)指物:It's a robot.
(2)指自然现象: It's raining now, but it will be fine soon.
(3)指时间:What time is it?    It's 8 o'clock.
(4)指距离:It's twenty minutes' walk.
(5)作形式主语:It's important for us to fight pollution.
It took me half an hour to finish the work.
It's kind of you to say so.
(6)作形式宾语: We think it necessary to relax from time to time.

5. 不定代词

1)some,any

some用于肯定句中,any用于否定句和疑问句中。如:
There are some pens on the desk.
There aren't any pens on the desk.
Are there any pens on the desk?
Some are Chinese.    Others are English.
在表示请求、建议、反问等句子中,用some而不是用any。如:
Would you like some drink?
any也可以表示任何一个。如:
Do you know any of her friends?
If you have any questions, you can ask me.

2)复合不定代词:something, anything,nothing,everything,somebody,anybody,nobody,everybody,someone,anyone,no one,everyone,somewhere,anywhere,nowhere,everywhere这些不定代词都作单数,表示“某物”、“某人”、“某地”。

(1)作主语:
Someone is waiting for you.
No one is in the classroom.

(2)作宾语:
Have you got anything to say?
Did you see anything else in the classroom?

(3)不定代词被形容词修饰时,定语放在它们的后面。如:
I’ve got something interesting to tell you.
There's nothing new in the newspaper.

3)a few,few,a little,little前两者修饰可数名词,后两者修饰不可数名词。few,little表示否定,意思是几乎没有;a few,a little表示肯定,意思是还有几个、有一点。如:
There is still a little time left, you needn't hurry.
I can't buy anything because I have little money on me.

4)both(两者都,复数),all(三者以上都,复数),neither(两者都不,单数),none(三者以上都不,单复数),either(两者中的一个,单数),both...and, neither...nor, either...or

(1)作主语:
Both of the twins are doctors.
All of them are honest.
Neither of them is a doctor.
None of them is/are honest.
(2)词组:
Both Li Ping and I are students.
Neither Li Ping nor I am a student.
(3)作形容词:
on both sides of the river
on either side of the river

注意下面句子转化:
Both of them are teachers.
改成否定句是: Neither of them is a teacher.
All of us are students.
改成否定句是: None of us is a student.      或: None of us are students.

5)one ...the other(s)表示一个……其余的……,是有范围的;some...others 表示一些……另一些……,是无范围的;another 表示很多中的另一个,再……个。如:
He has two brothers. One is an engineer, the other is a writer.
Some like football. Others like basketball.
Some books on the shelf are in Chinese, the others in English.
She will be in hospital for another two weeks.(她将在医院再住两星期。)

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